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  • Why is the global climatic cataclysm of the sixth century virtually unheard of?

    Another interesting article, origins of humans per Sumerians, from this same site;
    Last edited by G David Bock; 16 Apr 18, 15:48.


    • Was There a Civilization On Earth Before Humans?
      A look at the available evidence
      We never got back to aliens. Instead, that first conversation launched a new study we’ve recently published in the International Journal of Astrobiology. Though neither of us could see it at that moment, Gavin’s penetrating question opened a window not just onto Earth’s past, but also onto our own future.

      We’re used to imagining extinct civilizations in terms of the sunken statues and subterranean ruins. These kinds of artifacts of previous societies are fine if you’re only interested in timescales of a few thousands of years. But once you roll the clock back to tens of millions or hundreds of millions of years, things get more complicated.

      When it comes to direct evidence of an industrial civilization—things like cities, factories, and roads—the geologic record doesn’t go back past what’s called the Quaternary period 2.6 million years ago. For example, the oldest large-scale stretch of ancient surface lies in the Negev Desert. It’s “just” 1.8 million years old—older surfaces are mostly visible in cross section via something like a cliff face or rock cuts. Go back much farther than the Quaternary and everything has been turned over and crushed to dust.

      And, if we’re going back this far, we’re not talking about human civilizations anymore. Homo sapiens didn’t make their appearance on the planet until just 300,000 years or so ago. That means the question shifts to other species, which is why Gavin called the idea the Silurian hypothesis, after an old Dr. Who episode with intelligent reptiles.

      So, could researchers find clear evidence that an ancient species built a relatively short-lived industrial civilization long before our own? Perhaps, for example, some early mammal rose briefly to civilization building during the Paleocene epoch about 60 million years ago. There are fossils, of course. But the fraction of life that gets fossilized is always minuscule and varies a lot depending on time and habitat. It would be easy, therefore, to miss an industrial civilization that only lasted 100,000 years—which would be 500 times longer than our industrial civilization has made it so far.

      Given that all direct evidence would be long gone after many millions of years, what kinds of evidence might then still exist? The best way to answer this question is to figure out what evidence we’d leave behind if human civilization collapsed at its current stage of development.
      Last edited by G David Bock; 17 Apr 18, 13:48.


      • Rare Mutation Among Bajau People Lets Them Stay Underwater Longer

        The Bajau people of Malaysia and the Philippines are renowned for their free-diving abilities, often working eight-hour shifts in search of fish and other sea critters. Underwater sessions can last upwards of two minutes, with accumulated daily totals of breath-holding often reaching five hours. New research suggests these impressive feats aren’t the result of training, but rather, an example of natural selection at work—which, in this case, has endowed Bajau individuals with abnormally large spleens.

        The Bajau are a small community from Southeast Asia, living in Malaysia, the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines, Mindanao, Borneo, and the eastern Indonesian islands. Some pockets of Bajau still live a traditional lifestyle, living in houseboats or wooden huts propped over the water on wooden stilts. Often referred to as “sea nomads,” the Bajau are formidable free divers who have engaged in breath-hold diving for thousands of years. Today, Bajau free divers use rudimentary equipment, like masks and a spears, while searching for fish, lobster, and octopus.



        • Variant to #122 above;
          If we weren’t the first industrial civilization on Earth, would we ever know?

          Fossils and objects are unlikely to survive more than a few million years. Searching for chemical traces of industrialization offers an intriguing alternative.


          • Humans have another type of DNA inside our cells
            Scientists have identified an entirely new kind of DNA inside humans.
            This new DNA, known as the “i-motif,” was suggested in previous research, but had only been identified under artificial conditions in a lab. But research published in Nature Chemistry is the first study to confirm its existence inside living beings.
            The i-motif looks like a twisted knot, as opposed to DNA’s well-known double helix structure.

            In a double helix strand of DNA, there are four compounds that form “bases” — adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. Adenine typically binds with thymine while the cytosine binds with guanine, but this isn’t the case in the i-motif.
            “The i-motif is a four-stranded ‘knot’ of DNA,” Marcel Dinger, a co-author on the study, said in a press release. “In the knot structure, C [cytosine] letters on the same strand of DNA bind to each other – so this is very different from a double helix, where ‘letters’ on opposite strands recognize each other and where Cs bind to Gs [guanines].”

            To find the i-motifs, the scientists engineered antibodies into tiny probes that would attach themselves only to i-motifs. They added fluorescent dye to the probes so they could track exactly where the i-motifs were.
            These antibody probes were then placed in three variations of human cells where scientiests had hoped to identify the i-motifs in the nucleus of each cell.
            More research is needed to determine the i-motif’s purpose, but the researchers believe the structures help to switch genes “on or off.”


            • Who’s More Irish, You or Your Sibling?
              The Surprising Science Behind the Inheritance of Ethnicity
              Take a look:

              Do you see what happened? My oldest sister’s ethnicity results (on the far left), show she’s 45% Irish.
              Mine show I’m just 22% Irish. So my sister is twice as Irish as I am!
              And my other two siblings were right around 30% Irish. That means, despite my birthday, I’m actually the least Irish.
              All three of my sisters received a good portion of ethnicity from Europe West — and I basically got none.
              In the first moment I almost felt robbed. But then I realized my ethnic mix is just different but every bit as awesome.
              I am, for example, the most British (cue British accent and Britishisms like “Bob’s your uncle”).
              How Can This Happen?

              We all get 50% of our DNA from each of our parents. But they don’t give each kid the same 50% — unless you’re identical twins.
              So it’s not super unusual for siblings to have different percentages of their parents’ ethnicities.
              It makes sense if you think about the science behind it. But the first time most of us learn that our siblings can be more Irish or have DNA from a region that we totally lack, it’s definitely mind blowing.

              Presented for consideration of genetic factors, especially that mentioned in the last two paragraphs quoted.


              • A rather interesting fit here, as some of the excerpts will show. Not only have "flying saucers"/UFO/UAV entered social memes in many interesting ways, but the origin and nature of the Mormon/LDS faith/religion also is an interesting aspect of the Intervention Theory(theories);

                Mormons, Aliens, and Hangar 18
                Released in 1980, Hangar 18 was arguably Hollywood’s first UFO conspiracy movie. Its plot features many aspects of the real-life UFO enigma, including specific details from allegedly authentic top-secret UFO-related government documentation.

                Hangar 18 continues to provoke discussion within the UFO community, in part for the fact that it was released in 1980. It was in this year that details of the Roswell incident began to filter into the popular consciousness with the publication of Charles Berlitz and William Moore’s The Roswell Incident—the first book on the Roswell subject. Equally significant in 1980, and undoubtedly connected to the Roswell developments, was the quiet insertion into the UFO community of the term “MJ-Twelve.” This term, along with its variant, “Majestic Twelve,” has now assumed permanent residency in popular culture, having featured in films, TV shows, comic books and video games.
                We learn that, following the collision in orbit, the UFO made a controlled landing in the Arizona desert, where it was captured by the US military. The craft is soon transported to the top secret Hangar 18, where it is studied by NASA scientists (lead by Darren McGavin). Onboard the craft, the scientists make a series of startling discoveries:
                • The alien pilots, although dead, are physically undamaged and are almost exactly human in appearance. The scientists conclude that the aliens visited Earth in ancient times, that they were seen as gods, and that they interbred with Earth women and “jump-started” human life as we know it today.
                • A human woman is also onboard the craft in stasis. When removed by doctors, the woman awakens in a state of terror. We assume she is an abductee.
                • In the ship’s data files, the scientists find glyphs similar to those used by ancient Earth civilizations. The scientists also discover extensive aerial surveillance footage of Earth’s power plants, military bases and major cities. The aliens, it seems, have been taking an active interest in our technological capabilities.

                Meanwhile, Bancroft and Price are dogged in their pursuit of the truth and are targeted by the government for assassination. Price is killed, but Bancroft survives and eventually finds his way to Hangar 18 and aboard the alien spacecraft. Around this point, the NASA scientists finally decipher the alien glyphs, which indicate that the beings were planning to return to Earth en masse in the near future.
                On 9 April 1983, during a meeting at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico, Air Force Office of Special Investigations Officer Richard Doty presented Howe with a document, the front cover of which read:
                Doty told Howe that she was to read the document at the request of his superiors, but stressed that she was forbidden from taking the document with her and from taking notes of any kind.

                The weighty document detailed many aspects of the UFO phenomenon and included a list of UFO crash/retrievals. The list included two separate incidents near the Roswell region in 1947, and another in 1949, which resulted in the capture of a live extraterrestrial that was taken to Los Alamos National Laboratories. Apparently, the being was held captive before it died of unknown causes in 1952. Other crashes listed in the document included Aztec New Mexico, Kingman Arizona, and Loredo Texas.
                Most shocking to Howe was a paragraph that said the extraterrestrials had manipulated DNA in an evolving primate species to create Homo sapiens. Elsewhere in the document it was noted that the ETs had created a being on Earth whose purpose was to teach humans about love and non-violence. Howe was astonished: “We are talking about Jesus Christ,” she said to Doty, who said nothing in response, but who, she asserts, looked deeply uncomfortable.

                The author and researcher Mike Clelland has pointed out that the parallels between the content of Hangar 18 and the report shown to Linda Moulton Howe are so striking that “The document that Howe saw could very well have been written by Darren McGavin’s character from what he learned in the movie.” Clelland observes:

                We have a reporter [LMH] being shown a secret document by the Air Force in 1983, the conclusion is that they [officialdom] wanted this information floated out to the public. Three years earlier we have the movie Hangar 18 “floating” out the same information in the guise of an action film.
                Rising Sunn

                In 1971, Sunn Classic Pictures started to produce and distribute feature films and documentaries about UFOs (with an emphasis on Ancient Astronauts) and other paranormal/psychic phenomena. Titles included the aforementioned Ancient Astronaut-themed The Outer Space Connection (1975), The Amazing World of Psychic Phenomena (1976), The Bermuda Triangle (1979), based on Charles Berlitz’s non-fiction book linking UFOs to the disappearance of ships and aircraft; Beyond Death’s Door (1979), about life after death; and, in 1980, Hangar 18. Sunn Classic Pictures also had a strong focus on religious documentaries, with titles including: In Search of Noah’s Ark (1976), In Search of Historic Jesus (1979), and a TV series that ran from 1978 to 1979 called Greatest Heroes of the Bible.
                The Mormon connection

                Sunn Classic Pictures was established in Utah as a Mormon-run company with Raylan Jensen as its first President. Many of the studio’s writers, producers, and directors also were Mormons, including Robert Starling (writer of In Search of Historic Jesus, and who in later life would make an educational documentary about the Mormon Church), and Charles E. Sellier Jr., one of Sunn’s most successful writer/producers and also a co-founder of the studio with Raylan Jensen. As a producer, Sellier would make only family-friendly G-rated films “out of Mormon conviction.” His credits for Sunn notably included The Bermuda Triangle and Hangar 18. In 1997, Sellier wrote UFO, a non-fiction book examining the UFO enigma in the context of a government cover-up.

                It makes sense that a Mormon-run film studio should exhibit an interest in UFOs. Mormon cosmology holds that the Earth is not unique, but just one of many inhabited planets, each created by Jesus for the purpose of bringing about immortality and eternal life. Mormon leaders have taught that the inhabitants of these planets are almost identical in appearance to humans – just as the alien beings in Hangar 18 are extremely human-like (a point dwelt upon in the film’s plot).
                Last edited by G David Bock; 17 May 18, 15:32.


                • Couple more reference articles;
                  A Newly Discovered Solar System Object Hints at Hidden Planet Nine
                  Astronomers found a strange dwarf world that provides even more evidence that a giant planet is lurking at the edge of our solar system.

                  Scientists declare octopi life from another world


                  • Bopping about the 'net, came across .... Questions regarding the Near-Earth Geminga Supernova Event

                    And the embedded links;
           100,000-year problem

                    The 100,000-year problem ("100 ky problem", "100 ka problem") of the Milankovitch theory of orbital forcing refers to a discrepancy between the reconstructed geologic temperature record and the reconstructed amount of incoming solar radiation, or insolation over the past 800,000 years.[1] Due to variations in the Earth's orbit, the amount of insolation varies with periods of around 21,000, 40,000, 100,000, and 400,000 years. Variations in the amount of incident solar energy drive changes in the climate of the Earth, and are recognised as a key factor in the timing of initiation and termination of glaciations.

                    While there is a Milankovitch cycle in the range of 100,000 years, related to Earth's orbital eccentricity, its contribution to variation in insolation is much smaller than those of precession and obliquity. The 100,000-year-problem refers to the lack of an obvious explanation for the periodicity of ice ages at roughly 100,000 years for the past million years, but not before, when the dominant periodicity corresponded to 41,000 years. The unexplained transition between the two periodicity regimes is known as the mid-Pleistocene transition, dated to some 800,000 years ago.

                    The related "400,000-year-problem" refers to the absence of a 400,000-year periodicity due to orbital eccentricity in the geological temperature record over the past 1.2 million years.[2]


                    • More ...

                      Pulsars' Tails Offer Geometry Lessons to Astronomers

                      arXiv:astro-ph/9404008v1 6 Apr 1994

                      Geminga: A Cooling Superfluid Neutron Star

                      HST/FOC observations confirm the presence of a spectral feature in the optical spectrum of Geminga
             A Stone Age Supernova May Have Breathed Fire

                      (1993 excerpt)
                      Studying a very faint pulsating star believed to be a remnant of this stellar explosion, Italian and American astronomers have concluded that the supernova occurred relatively near the solar system. Besides blasting the earth with light and high-energy radiation, the explosion is believed to have created a huge bubble of hot, thin gas, the edge of which is near the solar system.

                      The supernova is believed to have left a faint remnant star named Geminga, one of the brightest celestial sources of gamma-ray radiation.

                      The explosion that gave birth to Geminga, the two new studies show, may have been close enough to the earth to destroy up to 20 percent of the earth's high-altitude ozone layer, which shields the surface from dangerous ultraviolet radiation emitted both by the sun and the supernova. The supernova apparently occurred less than 195 light-years from the earth -- not so near as to cause any mass extinctions, but close enough that the resulting sunburn might have impaired the health of human beings and other creatures, said Dr. Neil Gehrels, the author of one report. Solar ultraviolet radiation can cause skin cancer and cataracts in human beings and damage marine organisms. Research by Two Teams

                      The articles describing the latest Geminga research are in today's issue of the British journal Nature. One is by Dr. Giovanni F. Bignami and his colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica del CNR of Milan and the Universita di Cassino, Italy; the other is by Dr. Gehrels and Dr. Wan Chen of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
                      The Italian team analyzed telescopic images of the supernova remnant that were recorded by separate astronomical observatories in 1984, 1987 and 1992. The group determined that the remnant is moving slowly across the sky, and from the star's apparent speed, some 60 miles a second, and its course, the group was able to calculate its possible point of origin.

                      The American scientists calculated that the supernova explosion that formed the pulsar was also the possible cause of the huge gas bubble near the solar system.
                      But last year the mystery of Geminga was solved when a group led by Dr. Jules P. Halpern of Columbia University's Astrophysics Laboratory showed that Geminga was actually a very faint neutron star. This tiny star is probably the remnant of a Type 2 supernova explosion, a titanic blast that occurs when a star roughly eight times as massive as our sun uses up its fusion fuel, collapses and then blows up.

                      This supernova remnant star, formally designated 1E0630+178, was discovered in 1975 by the Einstein Observatory X-ray satellite, but its association with the mysterious Geminga was not then known. In 1991, Dr. Halpern's group, using data from the Rosat X-ray satellite, found that the star was emitting X-ray pulses at a rate of one every 0.237 seconds, about four a second. Since 1E0630+178 is a pulsar lying at the same position as the Geminga gamma-ray emitter, Dr. Halpern's group concluded that Geminga and 1E0630+178 are one and the same.

                      The data reported today led the NASA group to infer that the supernova that created Geminga would have exploded in the right place to spawn the peculiar bubble in the interstellar gas that has been detected near the solar system. This bubble, one of several that have been identified in our galaxy, is shaped something like a peanut. At the Edge of a Void

                      Such bubbles are detected by telescopic instruments that measure gas temperature and density in terms of brightness at various wavelengths of radiation. The "local bubble," as it is called, is believed to be 320 to 490 light-years long. The hot gas inside it is believed to be only about one-hundredth as dense as the normal interstellar gas of the galaxy. Astronomers believe the solar system is at the edge of this peanut-shaped void.

                      Dr. Gehrel's group based its estimate of the birth date of Geminga on the pulsar's rotation rate. Typical pulsars begin their lives spinning very rapidly, but slow down at a fairly standard rate. Calculated from its current rotation rate of about four turns a second, Geminga is about 340,000 years old, an age that presumably corresponds to the supernova explosion in which it was created.

                      Calculating the Geminga supernova's distance from the earth from the present position of the 1E0630+178 pulsar is much more difficult, Dr. Gehrels said in an interview, but a distance somewhere between 195 and 326 light-years would fit the data. This would have been close enough to the solar system that radiation from the supernova could have destroyed up to 20 percent of the earth's ozone layer. Rare Phenomenon

                      Last edited by G David Bock; 28 May 18, 00:16.


                      • Until I locate a better thread for this ....
                        Columbia and Yale scientists found the spiritual part of our brains—religion not required

                        Scientists seek to quantify everything—even the ineffable. And so the human search for meaning recently took a physical turn as Columbia and Yale University researchers isolated the place in our brains that processes spiritual experiences.

                        In a new study, published in Cerebral Cortex (paywall) on May 29, neuroscientists explain how they generated “personally relevant” spiritual experiences in a diverse group of subjects and scanned their brains while these experiences were happening. The results indicate that there is a “neurobiological home” for spirituality. When we feel a sense of connection with something greater than the self—whether transcendence involves communion with God, nature, or humanity—a certain part of the brain appears to activate.

                        The study suggests that there is universal, cognitive basis for spirituality, as opposed to a cultural grounding for such states. This new discovery, researchers say, could help improve mental health treatment down the line.
                        “Although studies have linked specific brain measures to aspects of spirituality, none have sought to directly examine spiritual experiences, particularly when using a broader, modern definition of spirituality that may be independent of religiousness,” the study explains. Because there are many types of transcendent moments with varying degrees of meaning to different people, it’s been difficult to test the general effects of spirituality, as opposed to religiosity. So for this study, the researchers generated individual scripts that put each subject in their own relevant transcendent state.

                        With each of the 27 subjects—all healthy young adults—the researchers created a personal script based on each person’s self-reported previous spiritual experiences. The scientists then scanned brain activity when generating such a state in the subjects.

                        During their varied transcendent states, all subjects showed similar activity patterns in the parietal cortex, which processes sensation, spatial orientation, and language, and is thought to influence attention, among other functions. In other words, whether the thing that makes a person feel connected to something greater involves church, trees, or a stadium full of sports fans, it appears to have the same effect on the brain.


                        • Tiny, far-flung worlds could explain outer Solar System’s strange geometry

                          Gravity of distant Moon-sized objects could do the job attributed to a hypothetical Planet Nine.
                          Maybe, ... massive object(NiBiRu) on a very elliptic orbit still could fill the bill (and Occam's Razor).


                          • Bene Gesserit

                            The Bene Gesserit (/ˈbɛniː ˈdʒɛsərɪt/ BEN-ee-JESS-ər-it)[1] are a key social, religious, and political force in Frank Herbert's fictional Dune universe. The group is described as an exclusive sisterhood whose members train their bodies and minds through years of physical and mental conditioning to obtain superhuman powers and abilities that can seem magical to outsiders. Acolytes who have acquired the breadth of Bene Gesserit abilities are called Reverend Mothers within the organization's ranks.[2] Some of these fictional powers are analyzed and deconstructed from a real-world scientific perspective in the book The Science of Dune (2008).[3][4][5]

                            Sometimes called witches due to their secretive nature and misunderstood powers, the Bene Gesserit are loyal only to themselves. However, to attain their goals and avoid outside interference, they often screen themselves with the illusion of being loyal to other groups or individuals. Their every move is calculated toward a result. As the skills of a Bene Gesserit are as desirable as an alliance with the Sisterhood itself, they are able to charge a fee to school the women from Great Houses, and install some of their initiates as wives and concubines to their advantage.[2][6] In 1965's Dune, the Princess Irulan is quoted (via epigraph):

                            A layer of involvement ~ connection ~~~ .... .... ....


                            • Another archive for future reference, which may be more misinformation, but has some notoriety;
                              The Urantia Book

                              The legendary "Urantia Book," a 2000-page tome first published in 1955, is considered by some to be an unparalleled revelation to our planet on the subjects of science, religion, and the history & destiny of humanity. The material, said to come from celestial beings, can be read online at the Urantia Foundation.



                              • 'Cataclysmic' collision shaped Uranus' evolution



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