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Adolf Hitler German Chancellor and the Beginning of the II World War.

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  • Adolf Hitler German Chancellor and the Beginning of the II World War.

    In 12th sept. 1931 was the German Reichstag dissolved. After a presidental decree had been read, a vote was taken, contrary to rules, on a Communist motion of no confidence. This was passed by 512 votes to 42 indicating the impossibbility of securing popular support for the Papen ministry. In nov. the Papen-cabinet resigned. In jan. 1933 Adolf Hitler was made to chancellor, Von Papen vice-chancellor, Herman Göring aviationn, Wilhelm Frick interior, General Blomberg defense, Constantin von Neurath foreign affairs. The ministry, regarded as a coalition of National Socialists and Nationalists, with important posts assigned to non party men of the old governing class, lacked a majority so long as the Center stood aloof. But Hitler refused to compromise with Mgr. Kaas, the Centralist leader, and the Reichstag was dissolved again. The new elections were set for march 5. In feb. a violent election campaign of the National Socialists culminated in a fire which partly destroyed the Reichstag building. Hitler denounced this as an Communist plot and President Hindenburg issued emergency decrees suspending the constitutional guaranties of free speech and free press, as well as other liberties. The Nazi storm troops [ SA] were able to intimidate and bully their opponents with impunity. In 5. March the Reichstag elections gave the Nazis 44% of the votes and their Nationalist allies [party of business and old aristocracy] only 8%. There were 288 Nazis, 52 Nationaslists, 74 Centers, 120 Sozialists and 81 Communists in the new Reichstag. The the Passage of the Enabiling Act was made by the Reichstag and Reichsrat. The National Socialists and the Nationalists found support among deputies. Of the Catholic Center. The Communist party had already outlawed after the Reichstag fire. Only 94 votes [ all Social Democratic] were cast against the crucial Enabling Bill, which gave the government dictorial powers until april 1937. Thereby the Nazi dictatorship was firmly established. The Nazi Revolution proved to be the greatest overturns in German and in fact in European history. In may the election in the Free City of Danzig proved to be a victory for the National Socialists, who captured 39 of 72 seats of the senate. In oct. was the withdrawal of Germany from the disarmament conference and from the League of Nations. This marked the beginning of an independent policy in foreign affairs. In nov. 12. was a new election of the Reichstag . 93% of the voters approved the governments action in withdrawing from the Legue. 92% voted for the Nazi list of canditates. There were no opposition candidates, but opponents of the regime cast about 3 million invalid ballots, the only way of registering disapproval. The Reichstag itself, under the new system, lost all importance and became little more than an assembly of Nazi leaders occasionally convoked to hear addresses by the Führer Hitler. In June Hitler and his chief associates paid a visit to Mussolini at Venice. This move was evidently designed to pave the way for closer relations between the two Facists states. In June occured the Great Blood Purge, in which, according to Hitlers own admission, 74 persons, many of them leaders high in the party, were summarily executed because of an alleged plot against Hitler and his regime. In realty this dramatic move appears to have been directed against representatives of the more radical wing of the party, which aimed at incorporation of the Storm Troops, SA, in the army and farreaching property changes. Under the victims were: General Schleicher and his wife, Ernst Roehm, one of the best organizer in the movement, Gregor Strasser, one of the earliest and most energetic and Erich Klausner, prominent Catholic leader. In july was the Nazi Putsch in Vienna, in the course of which Chancellor Dollfus was assassinated. The coup was the culmination of Nazi propaganda and preassure on the Austrian government. In august President Hindenburg had died and then a plebiscite was made, which approved Hitler's assumption of the presidency and of sole executive power with 88% of the voters. Hitler, however, preferred to retain the title "Führer". In jan. 1935 the Plebiscite in the Saar was made, conducted by the League of Nations and in accordance wit the Treaty of Versailles. 90% of the electors voted for the reunion of the territory with Germany. The return of the Saar to the Reich marked the beginning of German expansionunder Hitler regime. In march Hitler startled the world by denouncing the clauses of Versailles Treaty providing for German disarmament. Then the German goverment denounced the Locarno Pacts of 1925 and reoccupied the Rhineland. In oct was the formation of the Berlin-Rom Axis, which resulted from a visit of the Italian foreign minister, son in law of Mussolini, Count Ciano. This agreement strengthened the position of both Germany and Italy against France and Great Britain. Then the German goverment helped the Franco regime to power in Spain by military action. At the operation Condor many Messerschmidt fighting planes were sent to Spain for military actions. In march 1938 occured the German invasion and annexion of Austria. Then German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, the annexion of Memel and the war with Poland without a formal declaration. England and France declared war therefore to Germany on 3th sept 1939.

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