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88mm PaK 43 Blast Lung Injury (BLI)

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  • 88mm PaK 43 Blast Lung Injury (BLI)

    There have been many discussions/debates here on ACG about the effects of the German 88mm PaK 43 and all variants leading up to the 43.
    I know Ken (lcm1) must have seen the effects of the 88 UCAP.

    I found this article on the internet. Excerpt:
    In a series arising from the battle of Monte Cassino in spring 1944 evidence of BLI was found in 34.5 per cent of a series of 87 autopsies performed in soldiers who died with no external evidence of thoracic injury.

    Full article here:



    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3013440/

    Note the appearance of Rommel in the video below. Rommel's use of the 88 at Arras and in North Africa in an anti-tank/anti personnel role was devastating. At Arras it allowed Rommel's 7th PzD to continue its rapid advance to the channel and in North Africa turned many a British offensive operation on its ear.





    88mm Anti aircraft in action with German "schoolboys"

    Last edited by Kurt Knispel; 21 Oct 18, 10:00.
    Our world at Khe Sanh was blood, death, and filth with deafening gunfire and blinding explosions as a constant soundtrack...Barry Fixler
    http://sempercool.com/

  • #2
    Schoolboys? yes, but there, a very high percentage of the Allied invasion force back into Europe was made up of teenagers ( I was one of them ) and we were men far ahead of our actual years. lcm1
    'By Horse by Tram'.


    I was in when they needed 'em,not feeded 'em.
    " Youuu 'Orrible Lot!"

    Comment


    • #3
      The Germans did use 15 + year old schoolboys to crew AA guns in Germany. They would attend school during the day and then do either a late night or early morning shift at the battery
      Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H G Wells)
      Mit der Dummheit kaempfen Goetter selbst vergebens (Friedrich von Schiller)

      Comment


      • #4
        Oh yes I agree, but I do believe that is so back home anyway. A bit like a junior 'Dads Army'. I came across plenty of young POW's around about the same age as us in Normandy, 18ish, also older men bought back from the Eastern front and drafted to Normandy. In general still good soldiers, I say that because the insinuation is sometimes that they were surplus rubbish and nothing was further from truth. lcm1
        'By Horse by Tram'.


        I was in when they needed 'em,not feeded 'em.
        " Youuu 'Orrible Lot!"

        Comment


        • #5
          Hi, nice to see you're all still here!
          I remember that large caliber gun bombardments could lead to devastating effects. Best example, probably, are shore bombardments by capital ships. IIRC, there were reports about fatal casualties among shore personnel even without direct hits and even behind concrete fortifications. Due to internal organs ruptures and internal bleeding, caused by pressure differentials created by explosions' shock waves.
          Nice that the article tells about the secondary etc effects. Even small bullet causes tissue necrosis around the original wound area. These effects are quite rarely mentioned.
          "Keep Calm. Use Less X's"

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by dmf01 View Post
            Hi, nice to see you're all still here!
            I remember that large caliber gun bombardments could lead to devastating effects. Best example, probably, are shore bombardments by capital ships. IIRC, there were reports about fatal casualties among shore personnel even without direct hits and even behind concrete fortifications. Due to internal organs ruptures and internal bleeding, caused by pressure differentials created by explosions' shock waves.
            Nice that the article tells about the secondary etc effects. Even small bullet causes tissue necrosis around the original wound area. These effects are quite rarely mentioned.
            Knowledge of the ability of explosive shells to kill without leaving any visible evidence of external trauma existed long before WW2. The first reported incidence being in 1798 after the Battle of the Nile when a 'powder monkey' in HMS Goliath was found to have been killed by a shell from a French warship. The explosion had left no mark on the boy's body. At the time only the French and Venetian navies were using explosive shells at sea.
            Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H G Wells)
            Mit der Dummheit kaempfen Goetter selbst vergebens (Friedrich von Schiller)

            Comment


            • #7
              Here is some information on the subject of blast injuries ...... from http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksd...I/chapter1.htm

              The work also includes charts that might be helpful in understanding the phenomena.

              BLAST INJURIES

              Incidence

              The British experience with blast injury was entirely gained through German bombings of the British Isles, a fact which, for a time, misled medical officers in the U.S. Army, who believed that they would encounter the syndrome frequently in combat. They did not. Blunt injuries of the intact chest, with resulting contusion, were fairly frequent, but blast injuries were uncommon. Early in the U.S. experience, the two conditions were frequently confused. Once the differentiation was appreciated and pulmonary edema from wet lung, injudicious fluid administration, and occasional fat embolism were also excluded, very few patients were seen in field or evacuation hospitals who could be considered to be suffering from true blast injuries of the chest.

              The single case of blast injury observed by surgeons of the 2d Auxiliary Surgical Group in their 2,267 thoracic and thoracoabdominal injuries was confirmed by post mortem examination. The 8 cases observed by Maj. Frank Tropea, Jr., MC, and Lt. Col. John M. Snyder, MC, in 603 chest injuries resulted in 3 deaths; in 1 case, the diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy.

              Capt. William W. Tribby, MC (7), in his study of 1,000 battlefield deaths of U.S. Army troops in Italy, found 13 bodies in which there were no penetrating injuries and in which the cause of death was presumably blast injury. In four cases, the diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy, which revealed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage in all cases and pulmonary edema in three. Because of the advanced state of decomposition of the bodies, microscopic confirmation was possible in only one case.

              Captain Tribby believed that several other casualties might also have died of blast injuries, for while penetrating wounds were present, they were not sufficient, in any instance, to account for the fatality. In one body, for instance, the only injury was a penetrating wound of the right wrist.

              Data prepared by the Medical Statistics Division, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, show 1,021 blast injuries of nonbattle origin in the U.S. Army for the 1942-45 period, of which 48 were fatal (table 1). For the same period, there were 13,200 battle-incurred blast injuries outside of the

              33

              TABLE 1.-Blast injuries of nonbattle origin in the U.S. Army, by numbers of admissions1 and deaths,2and by area and year, 1942-45

              [Preliminary data based on sample tabulations of individual medical records]3
              Area 1942-45 1942 1943 1944 1945
              Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths
              Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
              Continental United States 256 7 47 --- 150 2 34 3 25 2
              Overseas:4
              Europe 325 18 3 --- 22 --- 145 5 155 13
              Mediterranean5 144 10 3 --- 64 1 52 1 25 8
              Middle East 4 --- 1 --- 3 --- --- --- --- ---
              China-Burma-India 11 2 --- --- 2 --- 4 1 5 1
              Southwest Pacific 128 7 5 --- 16 --- 27 3 80 4
              Central and South Pacific 119 4 9 --- 22 --- 18 --- 70 4
              North America6 20 --- 4 --- 12 --- 4 --- --- ---
              Latin America 9 --- 1 --- 7 --- 1 --- --- ---
              Total overseas 765 41 26 --- 149 1 255 10 335 30
              Total Army 1,021 48 73 --- 299 3 289 13 360 32

              1Includes an unknown, but presumably a relatively small, number of cases CRO (carded for record only), mostly deaths. For the two years, 1943 and 1945, in which the number of CRO cases was known, CRO cases constituted 3.2 percent of the nonbattle blast injury "admissions."
              2Underlying cause of death, year of death, and area of admission.
              3Complete files of records used for deaths, 1942 admissions, and oversea admissions in 1943. Samples of admissions were: 20 percent for 1945, U.S. 1943, and Europe 1944; 80 percent for 1944 excluding Europe.
              4Includes 5 admissions aboard transports, 1 in 1943 and 4 in 1944.
              5Includes North America.
              6Includes Alaska and Iceland.

              continental United States, of which 140 were fatal (table 2). Of the 6,284 blast injuries which occurred in 1944 and of which 76 were fatal, 493 involved the chest, and 25 of these were fatal (table 3). Another eight injuries, one of which was fatal, involved the thoracoabdominal region (table 3). Only 68 of the survivors in both groups (65 with thoracic wounds, 3 with thoracoabdominal wounds) required evacuation (table 4). A remarkable variety of agents (table 3) were responsible for these injuries, which are generally considered to be caused only by high explosives. It must also be remembered that deaths which occurred in blast injuries were not always due to those injuries. This was true in 3 of the 25 deaths which occurred in 1944.

              To complete the picture, it should be added that, as might have been expected, the Navy experience with blast injury was considerably more extensive than that of the Army.

              34

              TABLE 2.-Battle-incurred blast injuries in the U.S. Army, by numbers of admissions1 and deaths, 2 and by area and year, 1942-45

              [Preliminary data based on sample tabulations of individual medical records]
              Area 1942-45 1942 1943 1944 1945
              Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths Admis-
              sions
              Deaths
              Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
              Europe 9,651 106 1 --- 8 --- 5,405 61 4,237 45
              Mediterranean3 1,345 14 15 --- 462 --- 620 12 248 2
              Middle East 1 --- --- --- --- --- 1 --- --- ---
              China-Burma-India 16 --- --- --- 2 --- 8 --- 6 ---
              Southwest Pacific 1.455 12 10 --- 33 --- 176 2 1,236 10
              Central and South Pacific 715 8 8 --- 102 1 73 1 532 6
              North America4 4 --- --- --- 4 --- --- --- --- ---
              Latin America --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Total5
              13,200 140 34 --- 616 1 6,284 76 6,266 63

              1Excludes cases carded for record only.
              2Among cases who reached a medical treatment facility. Underlying cause of death, year of death, and area of admission.
              3Includes North Africa.
              4Includes Alaska and Iceland.
              5Includes 13 admissions aboard transports: 5 in 1943, 1 in 1944, and 7 in 1945.

              Experimental Studies

              The British experience with German bombings early in World War II led them to carry out a number of experimental studies on blast injuries of the lung, under the direction of the Research and Experiments Department of the Ministry of Home Security. The most important of these studies was reported by Zuckerman (8) in the Lancet of 24 August 1940. In the same issue, Dean and his associates (9) reported on the clinical aspects of these injuries, and in the issue of 19 October of the same year, Hadfield, Swain, Ross, and Drury-White (10) described the pathologic process as confirmed by autopsy studies.

              Zuckerman's studies on blast injury, which are now classic, were carried out on pigeons and on animals varying in size from mice to monkeys. The experimental animals were exposed, in the open, (1) to blast from the explosions of 70 pounds of high explosives and (2) to explosions of hydrodgen and oxygen in balloons. Both sets of experiments produced essentially the same results.

              In the experiments with high explosives, no animals were killed at distances beyond 18 feet, and none were hurt in any observed manner at distances beyond 50 feet. When the bodies were protected by thick layers of rubber,

              35

              TABLE 3.-Battle-incurred blast injuries of the thorax and thoracoabdominal region, by numbers of admissions 1 and resulting deaths2in the U.S. Army, 1944, and by area of admission and causative agent

              36

              TABLE 4.-Battle-incurred blast injuries of the thorax and thoracoabdominal region, by numbers of admissions1 and resulting deaths2in the U.S. Army, 1944, and by area of admission and evacuee status

              [Preliminary data based on sample tabulations of individual medical records]
              Area THORAX
              Total Evacuated Not evacuated
              Admissions Deaths Admissions Deaths Admissions Deaths
              Number Number Number Number Number Number
              Europe 416 20 63 --- 353 20
              Mediterranean3 64 5 2 --- 62 5
              Middle East --- --- --- --- --- ---
              China-Burma-India --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Southwest Pacific 9 --- --- --- 9 ---
              Central and South Pacific 4 --- --- --- 4 ---
              North America4 --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Latin America --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Total
              493 25 65 --- 428 25
              THORACOABDOMINAL REGION
              Europe 5 1 3 --- 2 1
              Mediterranean3 3 --- --- --- 3 ---
              Middle East --- --- --- --- --- ---
              China-Burma-India --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Southwest Pacific --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Central and South Pacific --- --- --- --- --- ---
              North America4 --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Latin America --- --- --- --- --- ---
              Total
              8 1 3 --- 5 1

              1Excludes cases carded for record only.
              2Deaths occurring in 1944 among admissions in theater indicated. In 3 cases, not evacuated, death was ascribed to causes other than blast injury (see footnote 2, table 3).
              3Includes North Africa.
              4Includes Alaska and Iceland.

              there was either no damage at all, or minimal damage, as compared to the damage suffered by control animals. This observation, it might be interpolated, furnishes additional evidence for the use of body armor.

              None of the animals or birds had any external signs of injury. In every autopsy, the outstanding finding was traumatic pulmonary hemorrhage, which varied in degree according to (1) the distance of the animal from the charge and (2) the pressure exerted against the body. The lesions were bilateral unless the animals were so placed that one side acted as a shield for the other.

              37

              Then the lesions occurred on the side facing the explosion. This fact, as well as the anatomic sites of the hemorrhage, permitted no interpretation except that the lesions were caused by the impact of the pressure wave against the body wall. In all instances in which the lung injury was sufficiently severe to cause death, the lesions were detectable on roentgenologic examination, and blood was present in the upper respiratory passages as well as in the lungs.

              Mechanism

              Blast may be defined as the compression and suction waves set up by the detonation of a charge of high explosive. At every point in the neighborhood of the explosion there occur:

              l. A wave of high pressure, lasting about 0.006 second, according to Zuckerman's studies with 70-pound charges, followed by

              2. A negative suction pressure wave, lasting up to 0.003 second, produced by the reduction of the density of the air behind the positive compression wave to below the normal atmospheric pressure, which is about 15 pounds per square inch. The suction component of the blast wave is always much weaker than its pressure component; it can never be greater than 15 pounds per square inch, which corresponds to a perfect vacuum. It is only because of the very short duration of both components that blast waves are not more destructive than they are.

              As hot gases are ejected by a detonating shell, they compress the surrounding air into a shell or belt, which is thrown against adjacent layers of air. The compressed air within the belt is characterized by high pressure and high outward velocity. It is limited by an extremely sharp front, the so-called shock front, which is less than one-thousandth of an inch and in which the pressure rises abruptly.

              The initial velocity of the shock front as it travels away from the point of detonation is extremely high. Maj. Ralph W. French, MAC, and Brig. Gen. George R. Callender (11) estimated it as 3,000 feet per second at 60 feet from a 4,000-pound light-case bomb where the pressure jump is 100 pounds per square inch. The velocity then decreases rapidly down to the velocity of sound, which is about 1,100 feet per second or 750 miles per hour. The velocity of the shock front can be realized by comparing it with the velocity of gale winds from 50 to 60 miles per hour; of hurricanes, 80 to 100 miles per hour; and of tornadoes, in which estimated velocities range from 200 to 230 miles per hour.

              Because the pressure wave is highest in the region of the explosion and falls off rapidly the farther it moves from it, everything in the immediate neighborhood of a bomb explosion will suddenly be exposed to violent pressure waves of many times atmospheric pressure, while everything 50 feet or more away will be exposed to only two or three times atmospheric pressure. The

              38

              velocity and duration of a pressure wave at any given point are such that any object as large as the human body would undoubtedly be completely immersed for an instant in a wave of almost uniformly raised pressure.

              The magnitudes of the pressure and suction components of a blast wave are directly correlated with the amount of explosive. Zuckerman's studies showed, however, that if a given positive pressure is caused by a given amount of explosive at a given distance, the same degree of pressure will be experienced at twice that distance only when the amount of explosive is increased eight times.

              Thus all objects in the immediate neighborhood of an explosion are first subjected to violently increased wind and hydrostatic pressure, which may tear them to pieces and blow them far from the scene of the explosion. If they are not shattered by the pressure wave and blown along in its direction, they may be pulled toward the center of the explosion by the weaker, but longer acting suction wave.

              Pathologic Process and Causes of Death

              The pathologic process which results from the contusive effect of a blast wave on the chest arises, according to Zuckerman's (8) experimental studies, from the pressure component of the blast, which bruises the lungs by its impact on the body wall. It varies from small ecchymotic areas on the lung surface to such extensive lesions that the lung may appear hepatized.

              In the 10 autopsies performed by Hadfield and his associates (10) on civilians who died suddenly, or within a few hours, after short-range exposure to detonation of high explosives during aerial bombings, gross traumatic lesions were entirely absent or were trivial in all but one instance. In eight cases, death was due to the effects of blast, though in three cases carbon dioxide saturation of the blood was so extreme that it was considered the immediate cause of the fatality. Two casualties who were extricated from overlying debris without visible injuries were first thought to have died of blast. Further examination showed that both deaths were caused by compression asphyxia.

              As in Zuckerman's experimental studies, intrapulmonary capillary hemorrhage was the single gross anatomic lesion common to all cases in which deaths were due to blast. There was free capillary bleeding over large areas, and in these areas, the bronchioles, atria, and alveoli all showed uniform and considerable overdistention. In the fatalities due to compression asphyxia, hemorrhage was relatively slight. In these cases, the air passages contained only a small amount of blood-stained fluid, which was not frothy, but capillary and venous congestion and edema were striking. In the fatalities due to carbon dioxide saturation, the pulmonary hemorrhage was of the same character as in the true blast deaths, but the blood was fresh and pink, not dark. In both groups, the air passages contained quantities of frothy, serous fluid. Tribby (7) noted that in all 13 cases in which he believed death on the battlefield to be due to blast, there was blood in the nose or mouth or in both in every instance.

              39

              Subpleural hemorrhage was not conspicuous in the blast deaths studied by Hadfield and his group (10). The only casualty in the series who showed hemorrhagic rib markings in the pleura died from compression asphyxia, not from blast. Bleeding into the walls of the smaller bronchioles was occasionally observed, but there was a conspicuous absence of hemorrhage into the larger structures. There was no suggestion that hemorrhages were grouped around the bronchial system. Subpleural bullae, observed microscopically, had apparently been produced by detachment of the visceral pleura and its subjacent elastic tissue from the underlying lung by air escaping from ruptured alveoli.

              The most severe hemorrhages were found in two young children, one an infant, the other 13 years of age; the possible explanation was the lesser rigidity of the thoracic wall in youth. Bleeding was minimal in the only notably obese casualty in the group; it may be presumed that his excess flesh protected him from the most serious effects of the blast.

              Even making due allowance for the rapidity of the extravasation of blood into the lungs as the result of blast, in no instance was the amount of blood found at autopsy sufficient to cause fatal circulatory embarrassment. The conclusion was that blast probably produces death by interference with some vital tissue or center, in which, because of the extreme rapidity of the process, the structural changes that occur are not detectable. Hadfield and his associates (10), however, considered the presence of hemorrhage a trustworthy indication that the patient had been struck at close range by a wave of high pressure.

              In general, autopsy studies on victims of blast in the Mediterranean theater were in accord with these observations (fig. 10).

              Clinical Picture and Diagnosis

              Symptoms and signs-The clinical symptoms and signs of blast injury as observed in World War II were as follows:

              l. Shock.-This was a universal finding and was often profound. As a rule, the degree of shock was directly proportional to the severity of the injury. It was often increased by, or was more serious because of, associated injuries in other parts of the body.

              2. Restlessness.-This finding was often extreme and out of proportion to the evident severity of the injuries.

              3. Chest pain, which was of two types.-Almost all casualties from blast complained of pain located laterally and related directly to respiratory movements. This type of pain was considered due to contusion and hemorrhage of the intercostal muscles, with resulting muscular spasm. The other type of pain appeared in the more severe injuries. It was deep, central, and not related to respiratory movements. It lasted only a few days and was considered to be caused by mediastinal hemorrhage.

              40

              FIGURE 10.-Schematic showing of pathologic physiology of blast injury (wave of positive pressure shown by solid arrow, wave of negative pressure by dotted arrow): Petechial hemorrhage, cardiac (a), petechial hemorrhage, pulmonary (b), gross pulmonary hemorrhage (c), pleural hemorrhage (d), engorged pulmonary artery (e), and engorged vena cava (f).

              4. Cough and expectoration, which were present in all but the mildest injuries.-When the expectorated material first appeared, about 24 hours after injury, it was thin and mucoid. Later, it became thick and mucopurulent. Often, it was streaked with dark blood, and in an occasional case, there was free hemoptysis. Expectoration usually lasted about 10 days. Almost all dead or dying casualties were found to have frothy, blood-stained fluid in the nose and mouth.

              5. Abdominal pain and rigidity.-These findings, which were present in only a few blast injuries, were explained by extrapleural hemorrhages, which had an irritative effect on the intercostal nerves and muscles. In an occasional case, the persistence and prominence of these findings provided an indication for laparotomy.

              6. Partial fixation of the chest in the position of inspiration.-Movement, although limited, was equal on both sides.

              In the absence of complications, the percussion note was resonant. Breath sounds were usually weaker than normal, especially at the bases, and coarse bronchial rales were frequently heard in both lungs.

              41

              These observations are, in general, in correspondence with those reported by Dean and his associates (9) in 27 patients whom they examined from 7 to 10 days after they had been close to bursting high explosive bombs. Three of the casualties had been immersed. External injuries included extensive, but superficial, burns in 21 cases; fractures in 5 cases; and multiple splinter wounds of the leg in 1 case.

              There were no obvious chest injuries, and only six patients had symptoms referable to the chest. None complained of chest pain or hemoptysis. In no instance did the symptoms develop on the day of bombing; all appeared between the second and fifth days. Sixteen patients had abnormal physical signs, in 15 instances the characteristic fixation of the chest just described; in 1 instance the intercostal spaces shared the fullness.

              Roentgenologic examination-If the classical pathologic picture was present, roentgenograms showed heavy mottling over large areas of the lung fields, corresponding with the interstitial and alveolar hemorrhages observed, and varying in size and density with the extent of the lesions. The roentgenologic findings suggested those observed in patchy pneumonia. They disappeared within a week in mild injuries but persisted for weeks in severe injuries. Roentgenologic abnormalities were present in 14 of the 27 patients studied by Dean and his associates.

              Diagnosis-The first consideration in a suspected blast injury was a history of exposure, which, in spite of its importance, had to be interpreted with caution. The effects of blast were often a factor in wounds from high explosives, but the seriousness of the penetrating wounds was likely to overshadow them.

              Other diagnostic criteria consisted of the presence of shock; the various respiratory symptoms described; the characteristic bulging of the lower portion of the chest, which was held almost immobile in the inspiratory position; and the finding of blood in the lungs and air passages. Ruptured eardrums were pathognomonic. Roentgenologic findings were confirmatory.

              The essential features of diagnosis were:

              1. The absence of any significant external evidence of violence to the chest.

              2. Hemorrhagic lesions in both lungs, as shown by the character of the fluid expectorated or, less often, by hemoptysis, or by autopsy confirmation.

              Management

              The management of blast injury was never really satisfactory. The routine consisted of the following measures:

              1. The treatment of shock.-However deep was the state of shock and however much associated injuries demanded intensive measures, resuscitation had to be carried out cautiously from the standpoint of replacement therapy. Injudicious use of any fluid, including blood, might increase pulmonary edema. An occasional patient, in fact, in whom edema and congestion were particularly marked, responded to venesection, which was employed as a lifesaving measure.


              Comment


              • #8
                JustAGuy,

                Thanks for the informative input and the link!

                Our world at Khe Sanh was blood, death, and filth with deafening gunfire and blinding explosions as a constant soundtrack...Barry Fixler
                http://sempercool.com/

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by JustAGuy View Post
                  Here is some information on the subject of blast injuries ...... from http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksd...I/chapter1.htm

                  The work also includes charts that might be helpful in understanding the phenomena.

                  BLAST INJURIES

                  Incidence

                  The British experience with blast injury was entirely gained through German bombings of the British Isles, a fact which, for a time, misled medical officers in the U.S. Army, who believed that they would encounter the syndrome frequently in combat. They did not. Blunt injuries of the intact chest, with resulting contusion, were fairly frequent, but blast injuries were uncommon. Early in the U.S. experience, the two conditions were frequently confused. Once the differentiation was appreciated and pulmonary edema from wet lung, injudicious fluid administration, and occasional fat embolism were also excluded, very few patients were seen in field or evacuation hospitals who could be considered to be suffering from true blast injuries of the chest.

                  In fact there was British experience of lung blast in WW1 but recording was lumped together with shell shock as what we would today call PTSD was then thought to be physical nervous damage also caused by blast. The information probably was there but not obvious and easily accessible.
                  Last edited by MarkV; 26 Oct 18, 12:20.
                  Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H G Wells)
                  Mit der Dummheit kaempfen Goetter selbst vergebens (Friedrich von Schiller)

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Table 2 above, certainly suggest that battlefield deaths due to Blast Injury happened on a regular basis and most of those resulted in death before admission to a hospital. Little wonder air-fuel bombs are so deadly.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      This could be informative or maybe not, as an S.B come Medic I remember on one occasion treating a man with shrapnel injuries from a shell blast who swore that he thought his chest was going to burst, I put it down to an intake of air from the explosion and as he had only fairly superficial wounds otherwise, thought no more about it. lcm1
                      'By Horse by Tram'.


                      I was in when they needed 'em,not feeded 'em.
                      " Youuu 'Orrible Lot!"

                      Comment

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