Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

World War one information anyone?? (Have any for me)

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • World War one information anyone?? (Have any for me)

    I need information on:
    Trench Warfare and Passchendale.
    I have some information on Vimy and
    the Vimy Memorial already but I could still use some.
    Thanks Guys,
    "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
    -Dylan Dubeau

  • #2
    Here's some info on Trench Warfare. I doubt the pictures will come through though.



    Feature Articles: Life in the Trenches
    Updated - Saturday, 24 January, 2004

    Life in the trenches during the First World War took many forms, and varied widely from sector to sector and from front to front.

    Undoubtedly, it was entirely unexpected for those eager thousands who signed up for war in August 1914.

    A War of Movement?

    Indeed, the Great War - a phrase coined even before it had begun - was expected to be a relatively short affair and, as with most wars, one of great movement. The First World War was typified however by its lack of movement, the years of stalemate exemplified on the Western Front from autumn 1914 until spring 1918.

    Not that there wasn't movement at all on the Western Front during 1914-18; the war began dramatically with sweeping advances by the Germans through Belgium and France en route for Paris. However stalemate - and trench warfare soon set in - and the expected war of movement wasn't restored until towards the close of the war, although the line rippled as successes were achieved at a local level. (Click here to view brief film footage of German soldiers preparing trenches in France in 1914.)

    So what was life actually like for the men serving tours of duty in the line, be they front line, support or reserve trenches?

    Daily Death in the Trenches

    Death was a constant companion to those serving in the line, even when no raid or attack was launched or defended against. In busy sectors the constant shellfire directed by the enemy brought random death, whether their victims were lounging in a trench or lying in a dugout (many men were buried as a consequence of such large shell-bursts).

    Similarly, novices were cautioned against their natural inclination to peer over the parapet of the trench into No Man's Land.

    Many men died on their first day in the trenches as a consequence of a precisely aimed sniper's bullet.

    It has been estimated that up to one third of Allied casualties on the Western Front were actually sustained in the trenches. Aside from enemy injuries, disease wrought a heavy toll.

    Rat Infestation

    Rats in their millions infested trenches. There were two main types, the brown and the black rat. Both were despised but the brown rat was especially feared. Gorging themselves on human remains (grotesquely disfiguring them by eating their eyes and liver) they could grow to the size of a cat.

    Men, exasperated and afraid of these rats (which would even scamper across their faces in the dark), would attempt to rid the trenches of them by various methods: gunfire, with the bayonet, and even by clubbing them to death.

    It was futile however: a single rat couple could produce up to 900 offspring in a year, spreading infection and contaminating food. The rat problem remained for the duration of the war (although many veteran soldiers swore that rats sensed impending heavy enemy shellfire and consequently disappeared from view).

    Frogs, Lice and Worse

    Rats were by no means the only source of infection and nuisance. Lice were a never-ending problem, breeding in the seams of filthy clothing and causing men to itch unceasingly.

    Even when clothing was periodically washed and deloused, lice eggs invariably remained hidden in the seams; within a few hours of the clothes being re-worn the body heat generated would cause the eggs to hatch.

    Lice caused Trench Fever, a particularly painful disease that began suddenly with severe pain followed by high fever. Recovery - away from the trenches - took up to twelve weeks. Lice were not actually identified as the culprit of Trench Fever until 1918.

    Frogs by the score were found in shell holes covered in water; they were also found in the base of trenches. Slugs and horned beetles crowded the sides of the trench.

    Many men chose to shave their heads entirely to avoid another prevalent scourge: nits.

    Trench Foot was another medical condition peculiar to trench life. It was a fungal infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and unsanitary trench conditions. It could turn gangrenous and result in amputation. Trench Foot was more of a problem at the start of trench warfare; as conditions improved in 1915 it rapidly faded, although a trickle of cases continued throughout the war.

    The Trench Cycle

    Typically, a battalion would be expected to serve a spell in the front line. This would be followed by a stint spent in support, and then in reserve lines. A period of rest would follow - generally short in duration - before the whole cycle of trench duty would start afresh.

    In reality the cycle was determined by the necessities of the situation. Even while at rest men might find themselves tasked with duties that placed them in the line of fire.

    Others would spend far longer in the front line than usual, usually in the more 'busy' sectors.

    As an example - and the numbers varied widely - a man might expect in a year to spend some 70 days in the front line, with another 30 in nearby support trenches. A further 120 might be spent in reserve. Only 70 days might be spent at rest. The amount of leave varied, with perhaps two weeks being granted during the year.

    Stand To and the Morning Hate

    The daily routine of life in the trenches began with the morning 'stand to'. An hour before dawn everyone was roused from slumber by the company orderly officer and sergeant and ordered to climb up on the fire step to guard against a dawn raid by the enemy, bayonets fixed.

    This policy of stand to was adopted by both sides, and despite the knowledge that each side prepared itself for raids or attacks timed at dawn, many were actually carried out at this time.

    Accompanying stand to, as the light grew, was the daily ritual often termed the 'morning hate'.

    Both sides would often relieve the tension of the early hours with machine gun fire, shelling and small arms fire, directed into the mist to their front: this made doubly sure of safety at dawn.

    Rum, Rifles and the Breakfast Truce

    With stand to over, in some areas rum might then be issued to the men. They would then attend to the cleaning of their rifle equipment, which was followed by its inspection by officers.

    Breakfast would next be served. In essentially every area of the line at some time or other each side would adopt an unofficial truce while breakfast was served and eaten. This truce often extended to the wagons which delivered such sustenance.

    Truces such as these seldom lasted long; invariably a senior officer would hear of its existence and quickly stamp it out. Nevertheless it persisted throughout the war, and was more prevalent in quieter sectors of the line.

    Inspection and Chores

    With breakfast over the men would be inspected by either the company or platoon commander. Once this had been completed NCOs would assign daily chores to each man (except those who had been excused duty for a variety of reasons).

    Example - and necessary - daily chores included the refilling of sandbags, the repair of the duckboards on the floor of the trench and the draining of trenches.

    Particularly following heavy rainfall, trenches could quickly accumulate muddy water, making life ever more miserable for its occupants as the walls of the trench rapidly became misshapen and were prone to collapse.

    Pumping equipment was available for the draining of trenches; men would also be assigned to the repair of the trench itself (click here to view brief film footage of British troops pumping water from trenches in 1914). Still others would be assigned to the preparation of latrines.

    Daily Boredom

    Given that each side's front line was constantly under watch by snipers and look-outs during daylight, movement was logically restricted until night fell. Thus, once men had concluded their assigned tasks they were free to attend to more personal matters, such as the reading and writing of letters home.

    Meals were also prepared. Sleep was snatched wherever possible - although it was seldom that men were allowed sufficient time to grab more than a few minutes rest before they were detailed to another task.

    Dusk: Stand To, Supply and Maintenance

    With the onset of dusk the morning ritual of stand to was repeated, again to guard against a surprise attack launched as light fell.

    This over, the trenches became a hive of activity. Supply and maintenance activities could be undertaken, although danger invariably accompanied these as the enemy would be alert for such movement. Men would be sent to the rear lines to fetch rations and water (click here to view film footage of British soldiers receiving rations in 1914).

    Other men would be assigned sentry duty on the fire step. Generally men would be expected to provide sentry duty for up to two hours. Any longer and there was a real risk of men falling asleep on duty - for which the penalty was death by firing squad.

    Patrolling No Man's Land

    Patrols would often be sent out into No Mans Land. Some men would be tasked with repairing or adding barbed wire to the front line. Others however would go out to assigned listening posts, hoping to pick up valuable information from the enemy lines.

    Sometimes enemy patrols would meet in No Man's Land. They were then faced with the option of hurrying on their separate ways or else engaging in hand to hand fighting.

    They could not afford to use their handguns while patrolling in No Man's Land, for fear of the machine gun fire it would inevitably attract, deadly to all members of the patrol.

    Relieving Men at the Front

    Men were relieved front-line duty at night-time too. Relieving units would wind their weary way through numerous lines of communications trenches, weighed down with equipment and trench stores (such as shovels, picks, corrugated iron, duckboards, etc.). The process of relieving a line could take several frustrating hours.

    ...And the Smell

    Finally, no overview of trench life can avoid the aspect that instantly struck visitors to the lines: the appalling reek given off by numerous conflicting sources.

    Rotting carcases lay around in their thousands. For example, approximately 200,000 men were killed on the Somme battlefields, many of which lay in shallow graves.

    Overflowing latrines would similarly give off a most offensive stench.

    Men who had not been afforded the luxury of a bath in weeks or months would offer the pervading odour of dried sweat. The feet were generally accepted to give off the worst odour.

    Trenches would also smell of creosol or chloride of lime, used to stave off the constant threat of disease and infection.

    Add to this the smell of cordite, the lingering odour of poison gas, rotting sandbags, stagnant mud, cigarette smoke and cooking food... yet men grew used to it, while it thoroughly overcame first-time visitors to the front.

    Photographs courtesy of Photos of the Great War website.


    A 'Black Hand Gang' was a raiding party or a selected group engaged in some desperate enterprise.


    Original Material Michael Duffy 2000-07, SafeSurf Rated


    This is taken from the WW1 internet site found here http://www.firstworldwar.com/

    You can find just about anything you need on WW1 at that site.


















    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.

    Comment


    • #3
      Thanks. I really needed that. It'll come in really handy for my Magazine that I have to do in History. :P
      And it's alright if the pictures don't/didn't come through. I can easily get some. Thanks a lot Revans
      Last edited by tigersqngirl; 25 Sep 07, 07:58.
      "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
      -Dylan Dubeau

      Comment


      • #4
        Thank you revans! An excellant synopsis of trench warfare. Very informative and answered many questions I had regarding the same. Wonder, though, what sort of meals were eaten by the troops in the trenches. Also, exactly where were the latrines located? Were they located in the front-line trenches or separate and behind the front trenches, which would make for unpleasant and dangerous trips back and forth.
        "Female virtue has been held in suspicion from the beginning of the world, and ever will be." -Napoleon

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by fjrosetti View Post
          Thank you revans! An excellant synopsis of trench warfare. Very informative and answered many questions I had regarding the same. Wonder, though, what sort of meals were eaten by the troops in the trenches. Also, exactly where were the latrines located? Were they located in the front-line trenches or separate and behind the front trenches, which would make for unpleasant and dangerous trips back and forth.
          The answers to this might help a bit too. Thanks for bring up those questions [B]fjrosetti[B] I was some what wondering the same thing.
          "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
          -Dylan Dubeau

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by tigersqngirl View Post
            The answers to this might help a bit too. Thanks for bring up those questions [B]fjrosetti[B] I was some what wondering the same thing.


            It appears the latrine was set up in the support trench according to this diagram.
            Catapultam habeo. Nisi pecuniam omnem mihi dabis, ad caput tuum saxum immane mittam.

            Comment


            • #7
              :O wow's. I never would have found that.
              "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
              -Dylan Dubeau

              Comment


              • #8
                If you google image search "trench layout", you'll find several good diagrams there. Some are clearer than this one, but this was the only one that seemed to show the location of the latrine.
                Catapultam habeo. Nisi pecuniam omnem mihi dabis, ad caput tuum saxum immane mittam.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by Frankenstein View Post


                  It appears the latrine was set up in the support trench according to this diagram.


                  That's a nice find.
                  Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by Frankenstein View Post


                    It appears the latrine was set up in the support trench according to this diagram.

                    Thank you! This is very helpful. Understand much better now.
                    "Female virtue has been held in suspicion from the beginning of the world, and ever will be." -Napoleon

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      If you want to get a further idea of what life was like in the trenches, try this interactive site. It's what discussed in the "Over the top" sticky but I didn't see the link there.

                      http://www.warmuseum.ca/CWM/overtop/index_e.html

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        That's a pretty awsome simulation thing. I had a lot of funn, even thought I made one wrong decision. It was still funn.
                        "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
                        -Dylan Dubeau

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          And how the stalemate of the trenches was broken.....

                          http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwa..._tactics.shtml
                          "To be free is better than to be unfree - always."

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by tigersqngirl View Post
                            I need information on:
                            Trench Warfare and Passchendale.
                            I have some information on Vimy and
                            the Vimy Memorial already but I could still use some.
                            Thanks Guys,
                            You can also check out www.firstworldwar.com
                            In honour I gained them, and in honour I will die with them.

                            -Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, Duke of Bronte, KB, RN

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by horatio_nelson View Post
                              You can also check out www.firstworldwar.com
                              Yea that site doesn't give alot of information on the Battle but it gives enough
                              "Everyone has stress burried deep inside, sometimes they hide the stress from their friends, It's better to let it loose in the end".
                              -Dylan Dubeau

                              Comment

                              Latest Topics

                              Collapse

                              Working...
                              X