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The Peace Treaty of Westphalia after the Thirty Years War 1648

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  • The Peace Treaty of Westphalia after the Thirty Years War 1648

    On this peace negotiations took part: The imperial ambassadors Count Trautmannsdorf and Dr. Volmar. For the French Count d' Avaux and Count Servien. For Sweden Count Oxenstierna, son of the chancellor and Baron Salvius. France and Sweden, against the will of the emperor, secured the participation of the states of the empire in the negotiations. Terms of the Treaties: A Indemnifications: 1. Sweden received as fief of the empire the whole of Hither Pomerania and Rügen, with a part of Farther Pomerania, the city of Wismar [formerly a possesion of Mecklenburg] and the Bishoprics of Bremen [not the city] and Verden as secular duchies. Indemnity of five million rix dollars. Sweden became a member of the German Diet with three votes. 2. France received absolute sovereignity over the Bishoprics and cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun; also Pignerol, the city of Breisach, the Landgravate of Upper and Lower Alsace [which had belonged to a branch of the Austrian Hapsburgs] and the goverment of ten imperial cities in Alsace. These cities and the other imperial states of Alsace [particulary Strassburg] retained their membership in the empire. France received also the right to garrison Philippsburg. 3. Hesse-Cassel received the Abbey of Hersfeld and part of the County of Schaumburg. 4. Brandenburg received, as indemnification for Pomerania [ all of which had belonged to Brandenburg by right of inheritance, though only the larger part of Farther Pomerania had been taken over], the. Bishoprics Halverstadt, Minden and Kamin as secular Principalities; the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as a duchy, with the reservation that it should remain in possesion of the administrator, August of Saxony, during his life. 5. Mecklenburg received the Bishoprics Schwerin and Ratzeburg as principalities.. 6. Brunswick was given the alternate presentation to the Bishopric Osnabrück, where a Catholic and an Evangelical bishop alternated until 1803. B Secular affairs of the empire: 1. General amnesty and return to the conditions of things in 1618. 2. The electoral dignity and the possesion of Upper Palatinate were left to the Wilhelminian [Bavarian] line of the house of Wittelsbach, while a new electorate was created for the Rudolfian [Palatinate] line. 3. The territorial superiority [Landeshoheit] of all the states of the empire, as regarded their relation to the emperor, was recognized. This involved the right of including alliances with one another and with foreign powers, provided they were not directed against the empire or the emperor. 4. The Republics of the United Netherlands and of Switzerland were recognized as independent of the empire. C Ecclestical affairs: 1. The Convention of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg were approved and extended so as to include the Calvinists. 2. Catholic and Protestant states were to be on complete equality in all affairs of the empire. 3. January 1, 1624, was adopted as the norm [annus normalis] by which question of ownership of ecclestical states and the exercise of religion should be determined. As things were on that date, so they were to remain for ever. The ecclesiastical reservation was acknowledged to be binding for the future. The subjugated Protestants of Austria and Bohemia obtained no rights by the traties, but those Evangelical states which had been won to the Counter-Reformation during the war [Lower Palatinate, Württemberg, Baden] were allowed to resume the exercise of that relligion which had been theirs in 1618. The jus reformandi, the privilege of deciding by fiat the religion of those subjects to whom the year 1628 did not secure free exercise of religion, was retained for the future by the territorial lords. The right of emigration was reserved to the subjects in such cases. The imperial court [Reichskammergericht] was restored and its members were equally divided between Protestants and Catholics. The Treaty of Westphalia was guaranted by France and Sweden.

  • #2
    And that is why I refuse to eat Swedish smörgåsbord, and French Kiss Oysters

    Regards
    Kruska

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    • #3
      Originally posted by Kruska View Post
      And that is why I refuse to eat Swedish smörgåsbord, and French Kiss Oysters

      Regards
      Kruska
      I always thought that the Swedes were supposed to be the 'Good Guys' in the 30 years war...
      "To be free is better than to be unfree - always."

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      • #4
        Originally posted by Surrey View Post
        I always thought that the Swedes were supposed to be the 'Good Guys' in the 30 years war...
        Hello Surrey,

        Nah, the only "good" guys were the German catholics

        Regards
        Kruska

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        • #5
          Originally posted by Kruska View Post
          Hello Surrey,

          Nah, the only "good" guys were the German catholics

          Regards
          Kruska
          I recently finished reading 'Europe's tradegy' by Peter Wilson, at 851 pages a bit of an epic struggle in itself.

          Seems that it was all started by the Imperialists wishing to have more control over the Empire and Palantine trying to create its own power base.
          "To be free is better than to be unfree - always."

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          • #6
            Originally posted by Surrey View Post
            I recently finished reading 'Europe's tradegy' by Peter Wilson, at 851 pages a bit of an epic struggle in itself.
            If you are looking for a good short read on the 30YW, David Maland's 200pp Europe at War 1600-1650 is excellent, despite being 30 years old itself.

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            • #7
              Originally posted by Surrey View Post
              I always thought that the Swedes were supposed to be the 'Good Guys' in the 30 years war...
              For "Good Guys", they sure did a lot of preplanned plundering.
              Flag: USA / Location: West Coast

              Prayers.

              BoRG

              http://img204.imageshack.us/img204/8757/snap1ws8.jpg

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PtsX_Z3CMU

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              • #8
                Originally posted by Salinator View Post
                For "Good Guys", they sure did a lot of preplanned plundering.
                "A horribile Haccapaelitorum agmine libera nos, Domine".
                ("O Lord, deliver us from the terrible army of the Haccapelites")
                - Roman Catholic prayer of the time

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by Surrey View Post
                  I recently finished reading 'Europe's Tragedy' by Peter Wilson, at 851 pages a bit of an epic struggle in itself.
                  Just started that book Friday myself. Interesting thus far.
                  Go is to chess as philosophy is to double-entry bookkeeping. - Nicholaï Hel in Shibumi

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                  • #10
                    Originally posted by Kruska View Post
                    Hello Surrey,

                    Nah, the only "good" guys were the German catholics

                    Regards
                    Kruska
                    Talking about Swedes, Germans etc is somewhat misleading. All sides, possible including the French (I am not sufe) had the majority of their troops recruited from Germany. "Swedish" troops included Finns and Estonians.

                    There were clearly no real good guys in this genocidal war. Seriously, pretty much everyone involved in this war would be qualified for a war crimes tribunal if you used modern international law. Wallenstein, Pappenheim, Banér, Gallas and Tilly among others might very well be qualified for crimes against humanity.

                    However, their were nuances. The Swedes were, however, the underdog of the battle and garnered some sympathy for this. During the earliest phase of the Swedish intervention when Gustavus Adolphus was still alive and when the Swedish field army mostly consisted of Swedish troops there was a marked difference in behaviour between the Swedish-led Protestant alliance and Catholic troops. Gustavus Adolphus wanted to control and get money from large areas of Germany and rarely plundered of the "loot, rape and burn"-type but instead made conquered land pay contributions ("give us this much money or we will burn your homes and take it anyway") which is not nice but much better. During storming Swedish and other troops expected the right to loot the town or castle freely as their reward, however. Also when the Swedes were brought to the defensive, however, they gladly destroyed land they no longer had any hope of controlling. Discipline in the Swedish field army also deteriorated when Banér preferred German mercenaries to Swedish troops in the field army using Swedish troops for garrison duty instead (they were considered more reliable in this duty). It further deteriorated when Sweden had problems paying their troops.

                    Possibly the worst behaviour was by Tilly, particularly due to the sack of Magdeburg and Gallas. Gallas generally incompetent but particularly incompetent concerning discipline and logistics.

                    Sensemaker
                    It doesn't matter how much intelligence you have. What matters is how much intelligence you use.

                    If it is stupid, but works, it aint stupid.

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                    • #11
                      Originally posted by trebuchet View Post
                      Just started that book Friday myself. Interesting thus far.
                      The book is very detailed but you are starting a marathon...
                      "To be free is better than to be unfree - always."

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