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The Thirty Years War, The Swedish Period, 1630-1635.

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  • The Thirty Years War, The Swedish Period, 1630-1635.

    In july 1630 Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden, landed on the coaast of Pomerania. Object and grounds of his interference: 1. the protection of the oppressed Protestants. Restoration of the Dukes of Mecklenburg, his relatives; 2. the rejection of his mediation at the Treaty of Lübeck; and 3. anxiety in regard to the maritime plans of the emperor. The political position of Sweden was: Finland, Ingermannland, Estonia, Livonia belonged to the kingdom of Gustavus; Courland was under Swedish influence; the acquisition of Prussia and Pomerania would have almost made the Baltic a Swedish sea. Gustavus concluded a subsidy treaty with France [Richelieu]; drove the imperial forces from Pomerania and captured Frankfurt/Oder. Negotiations with his brother in law, George William, Elector [Kurfürst] of Brandenburg, who was under the influence of Schwarzenberg.Spandau was at last surrendered to him. Negotiations in regard to the surrender of Wittenberg; Saxony, which endeaovered to maintain the position of a third, mediatory, party in the empire, a sort of armed neutrality [Diet of princes at Leipzig], was with difficulty brought to form an alliance with an enemy of the empire. Meanwhile in 1631 Magdeburg was captured by Tilly. The storm was. Conducted by Pappenheim. Terrible massacre and sack of the city by the unbridled soldiery of Tilly, who did what he could to check the outrages. Fire broke out suddenly in many places far removed from another and the whole city with the exception of the cathedral was consumed. Tilly took then possesion of Halle, Eisleben, Mersburg and other cities and burned them. John George, Elector of Saxony, formed an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus, who crossed the Elbe at Wittenberg. Leipzig occupied by Tilly. The imperial army and that of the Swedws and Saxons, each about 40.000 strong, were face to face at the Battle of Leipzig/Breitenfeld in september. The Saxons were at first put to rout by Tilly, but after a bloody fight Gustavus Adolphus won a brillant victory. The Saxons entered Bohemia. Gustavus crossed Thuringia and Franconia to the Rhine and occupied Mainz. Meantime Prague was captured by the Saxons under Arnim Boytzenburg, a former subordinate of Wallenstein. The emperor held fruitless negotiation with the Saxons. At the urgent request of emperor Ferdinand, Wallenstein collected an army, over which he received uncontrolled command. He recaptured Prague and drove the Saxons from Bohemia. Their eagerness for the war and the Swedish alliance was already chilled. 1632 Gustavus advanced to the Danube by way of Nürnberg to meet Tilly. Conflict at Rain, near the confluence of the Lenz and the Danube. Tilly, mortally wounded, died at Ingolstadt. Gustavus went to Augsburg, vainly besieged. Maximilian in Ingolstadt, but forced Munich to surrender. Wallenstein was summoned to the assistance of Maximilian. In. July /sept. Gustavus and Wallenstein were face to face in fortified camps near Nürnberg for eleven weeks. Wallenstein declined battle. Reinforced by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, the Swedes attacked Wallenstein's entrenchments, but were repulsed with heavy loss. Gustavus advanced to the Danube. Wallenstein turned upon Saxony, now defensless, Arnim having marched through Lusatia to Silesia with the Saxon and Brandenburg troops. Terrible ravages committed by the bands of Wallenstein. At the call of the Elector of Saxony, Gustavus hastened back by way of Kitzingen and Schweinfurt, joined Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar at Arnstadt, marched upon Naumburg and, hearing that Wallenstein had dispatched Pappenheim from Leipzig to the Rhine, attacked the imperial forces [18.000 against 20.000 Swedes] in the Battle of Lützen in nov., where he died in cause of his mortaly wounds. Nevertheless the Swedes were victorious under the command of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. The latter took command of the Swedish forces. The conduct of foreign affairs was assumed by the Swedish chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. In 1633 Bernhard expeded to Franconia. He took Bamberg and Höchstädt, drove back the Bavarians under Aldringer and joined Marshal Horn. He received from the chancellor the investiture, with the Bishoprics of Würzburg and Bamberg, under the name of the Dutchy of Franconias and occupird the upper Palatinate. In feb. after Wallenstein had tried and punished with death many of his officers in Prague and had filled their places with new recruits, he marched to Silesia, fought with the Saxon, Brandenburg and Swedish troops and negotiated frequently with Arnim and Oxenstierna. In nov. Bernhard of Axe-Weimar captured Regensburg. Wallenstein found himself unable to go to the assistance of the Elector of Bavaria, as the emperor urged and went into winter quarters in Bohemia. The growing entrangement between Wallenstein and the imperial court. The Spanish party and the legue wished him removed from his command. Wallenstein conducted secret negotiations wit the Saxons, the Swedes and the French. He intended to create, with the help of his army, an independent position for himself, whence he could, with the aid of the 2 North German Electors, liberate the emperor from the control of the Spanish party, and, if necessary, compel him to make peace and recognize the internal affairs of the empire. He had resolved upon open revolt if the hostile party continued in power. Whether he harbored a wish for the crown of Bohemia, along with other fantastic plans, it is hard to decide. The court of Vienna succeeded in detaching the principal generals, Piccolomini, Gallas, Aldringer, Marradas, Colloredo, from his cause. Iliw, Trzka, Kinski, remained faithful. In 1634 jan. a Imperial proclamation was made: Friedland [Wallenstein] was concerned in a conspiracy to rob the emperor of his crown. The chief officers of the army were commanded to obey him no longer. In feb. A second proclamation was made of deposing Wallenstein. Wallenstein went to Eger, where he was to be met by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and Amin. There occured the assassination of Wallenstein by Captain Devereux at the instigation of the Irish general Butler, after his intimate friends had been treacherously massacred. The emperor had not commanded the murder, nor had definitely desired it; but he had given rein to the party which he knew wished to bring in Wallenstein alive or dead, and, after the deed was done, he rewarded the murderers with honor and riches. In 1634 occured the great victory of the imperialists under Ferdinand, the emperor's son and Gallas and the Bavarians [John of Werth], over the Swedes ad Nörtlingen. In 1635 may 30th the Treaty of Prague was made between the emperor and the Elector of Saxony , which ended the War with the Swedes.

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