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The Thirty Year's War 1618-1648, Bohemian Period.

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  • The Thirty Year's War 1618-1648, Bohemian Period.

    The Thirty Year's War is genereelly divided into four periods, which were properly as many different wars. The first two, the Bohemian and Danish, had a predominantly religous character; they developed from a revolt in Bohemia into a a general conflict of Catholic Europe with Protestant Europe. The two latter, the Swedish and the French-Swedish, were primarily political struggles, wars directed against the power of the Hapsburg house and wars of conquest by Sweden and France, fought apon German soil. 1. The Bohemian Period 1618-1625. Origin of the war: closing of an Utraquist church in the territory of the Abbot of Braunau and. Destruction of another in a city of the archbishop of Prague. The irritation of the Bohemian Protestants [Utraquists] was increased by the transference of the administration to ten governors, seven of whom were Catholics. Meeting of the defensors and revolt in Prague, headed by Count Mathias of Thurn. The governors, Martiniz and Slawata, were thrown from a window in the palace of Prague. The fell seventy feet into a ditch but escaped with their lives.[ The Defenestration of Prague]. The rebels the appointed thirty directors. The Protestant Union sent Count Mansfeld to their aid, and from Silesia and Lusatia came troops under Margrave John George of Jägerndorf. The imperial forces were defeated by Mansfeld and Count Thurn. In 1619 Thurn marched upon Vienna. The Austrian estates, far the most part Protestant to this time, threatened to join the Bohemians and made rough demands upon the empeeor Ferdinand II, who, by his courage and arrival of a few troops, was rescued from a dangerous situation. Thurn, who arrived before Vienna shortly afterward, was soon obliged to retire by an unfavorable turn of the war in Bohemia. Ferdinand went to Frankfurt, where he was elected emperor by the other six electoors [Churfürsten]. Meantime the Bohemians had desposed him from the throne of Bohemia and elected the young Frederick V [The Winter King] Elector Palatine, the head of the Union and of the German Calvinists, son in law of James I, King of England. Count Thurn for the secont time before Viennsa, allied with Bethlen Gabor, Prince of Transylvanisa. Cold, want and an inroad of an imperial partisan in Hungary, caused a retreat. Ferdinand leagued himself 1. with Maximilian, Duke of Bavarias, head of the Catholic League, the friend of his youth, who helped him subdue the Austrian estates. 2. with Spain [ Spinola invaded the County Palatine; Treaty of Ulm 1620; neutrality of the Protestant Union secured] and 3. with the Lutheran elector of Saxony, who resubjugated Lusatia and Silesia. Maximilian of Bavaria, with the army of the League commanded by Tilly [ Jan Tseklaes, Baron of tilly of Brabant] marched to Bohemia and joined the imperial general Buquoy. They were victorious in the Battle of White Mountain Nov. 8th 1620 over the troops of Frederick V, under command of Christian of Anhalt. Frederick was put under the ban and his land confiscated. He himself fled to Holland. Christian of Anhalt and George of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf also put under the ban. Subjugation of the Bohemians, destruction of the royal charter, execution of leading rebels, extirpation of Protestantism in Bohemia. Afterward violent counter-reformation in Austria and with less violence in Silesia. Dissolution of the Protestant Union and transfer of the seat of war to the Palatinate, which was conquered in execution of the imperial ban by Maximilian's general Tilly, aided by Spanish troops under Spinola. 1622 Battle of Wiesloch; defeat of Tilly by Mansfeld. Battle of Wimpfen; victory of Tilly over Margrave of Baden Durlach. In June Battle of Höchst; victory of Tilly over Christian of Brunswick, brother of the reigning duke and administrator of the Bishopric of Halberstadt. 1623 Maximilian received the electoral vote belonging to Frederick V and the Upper Palatinate; Saxony obtained Lusatia in pledge for the time being.

  • #2
    Trivia.....My wifes village, in Sothern Germany, got burnt to the ground ( for the second/third time) during this political/religious discussion....One of my nephews, a state architect, dug up a large mass grave from that era while doing some survey work for a new housing area


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