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  • Today's event:

    1865 General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins

    Today's book:

    Sherman's March To The Sea by John F. Marszalek

    Book Review:

    John F. Marszalek, Giles Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History at Mississippi State University, presents Sherman's March to the Sea, a no-nonsense examination of General Sherman and his role in enabling the Union's victory during the American Civil War. Sherman's March to the Sea looks critically at sources that would vilify or sanctify Sherman's actions or personality beyond what the events of history say, and focuses upon what Sherman himself intended his wartime strategy to be: not a "total war" in which civilians are brutally slaughtered en masse, but rather extreme property, city, and supplies destruction designed to force the South to end the war as quickly as possible, therefore saving lives in the long run. Sherman's March to the Sea also analyzes Sherman's tactics, recounts the destructive details of Sherman's march, portrays Sherman through both white and black eyes as well as scrutinizing what positive and negative propaganda had to say about him. Of particular interest are the conclusions drawn about Sherman's racial views - while he was definitely racist enough to believe that black Americans were inferior to whites, neither was he the monstrous, hate-filled demon toward blacks that past and contemporary propaganda would portray him as. An absorbing portrait of a complex man and his unforgettable contribution to both American and world warfare history unfolds.
    All warfare is based on deception.
    Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


    • February 2

      By Admiral:

      1754 Charles de Talleyrand, French "silk stocking full of merde"
      1803 Albert Sidney Johnston, Gen, C.S.A., KIA in 1862
      1815 Nathaniel Collins McLean, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1905
      1827 Abner Monroe Perrin, Brig Gen, C.S., KIA, 1864
      1861 Sultan Mohammed VI of Turkey (1918-22)
      1890 Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, Marshal of France

      1435 Queen Giovanna II of Naples (1414-35), at 61, after a risque reign
      1451 Sultan Murad II of the Turks
      1685 King Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-85)
      1945 Karl F Goerdeler, Mayor of Leipzig and anti-Nazi, hanged at 60

      506 King Alarik II of Visigoten delegates Lex Romania Visigothorum out
      1141 Battle at Lincoln: King Stephen captured
      1437 Angevins surrender Gaeta (besieged from Dec 24) to the Aragonese
      1451 Mehemet II becomes Sultan of the Turks
      1461 Second Battle of St Albans: Lancastrians defeat Yorkists
      1800 USS Constellation (Captain Thomas Truxtun) defeats la Vengeance
      1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican War; U.S. acquires Texas California, New Mexico and Arizona for $15 million
      1862 USS Hartford, Capt David G. Farragut, departs Hampton Roads for Mississippi River campaign
      1864 CSS Florida begins a commerce raiding cruise, ends Oct 7th
      1878 Greece declares war on Turkey
      1894 Warship USS Kearsarge wrecked on Roncador Reef, near Solomon Island
      1901 Army Nurse Corps established
      1909 Marinetti publishes Futurist Manifest, calls for "cleansing" by war
      1915 Turks attack the Suez Canal from the Sinai (retire on the 3rd)
      1920 France occupies (German) Memel territory
      1920 Tarto/Dorpat peace treaty: U.S.S.R. recognizes Estonian independence
      1932 Geneva disarmament conference begins with 60 countries
      1933 Chancellor for two days, Adolf Hitler dissolves the Reichsstag
      1940 Atlantic:
      *Light cruiser USS Helena, at Montevideo, Uruguay, on her shakedown cruise, sends party to inspect wreck of DKM Admiral Graf Spee.
      *US passenger liner Manhattan is stopped by French auxiliary patrol vessel Vaillant about 25 miles southeast of Cape St. Vincent, Portugal, and ordered to proceed to Gibraltar for examination.
      1942 Pacific:
      *Submarine USS Seadragon sinks Japanese army cargo ship Tamagawa Maru off Cape Bolinao, Luzon, P.I., 17°16'N, 119°48'E, but misses army cargo vessel Nisshu Maru in the same attack.
      *Japanese minesweeper W.9 is sunk, and minesweepers W.11 and W.12 damaged, by Dutch mines off Ambon, N.E.I., 03°42'S, 128°10'E.
      1942 Atlantic:
      *Unarmed U.S. tanker W.L. Steed is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-103 about 90 miles east of the mouth of the Delaware River, 38°25'N, 72°43'W. Exposure to the frigid weather will eventually kill 34 of the 38-man crew who survive the loss of the ship at the outset
      1942 LA Times urges security measures against Japanese-Americans
      1942 U.S./Philippine troops counterattack in Bataan
      1942 US ceases production of private cars to convert to war production
      1943 Pacific:
      *Japanese destroyer IJN Makigumo is damaged by mine laid by light minelayers USS Tracy, USS Montgomery and USS Preble off Cape Esperance the previous night; she is scuttled by destroyer IJN Yugumo, 09°10'S, 159°45'E. Admiral William F. Halsey Jr., Commander South Pacific Force, lauds the success of the mining mission as resulting from "bold execution of a sound plan," while Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, calls it a "splendidly conducted operation... carried out by old ships, inadequate in speed and gun power..."
      *USAAF B-17s and P-39s sink Japanese cargo vessel Keiyo Maru off the Shortlands.
      *USAAF B-24s (5th Air Force) sink Japanese cargo vessel Kenkoku Maru while en route from Kokope to New Guinea, between Lolobau Island and New Britain, 04°58'S, 151°12'E.
      1943 Atlantic:
      *German submarine U-456 attacks convoy HX 224 in the North Atlantic and torpedoes U.S. freighter Jeremiah Van Renssalaer at 54°50'N, 28°55'W; 10 of the 28-man Armed Guard are lost; the ship is scuttled by escorts later the same day.
      1943 Australian guerrillas on Timor since Dec 8, 1941, are withdrawn by sea.
      1944 Pacific:
      *Roi and Namur Islands in the Marshalls are secured.
      *Destroyer USS Walker sinks Japanese submarine RO-39 10 miles east of Wotje, Marshalls, 09°24'N, 170°32'E.
      *Submarine USS Plunger attacks Japanese convoy south of Honshu, and sinks merchant cargo ships No.5 Toyo Maru and No.8 Toyo Maru off Kushimoto, 33°29'N, 135°59'E, and survives resultant depth-charging.
      *Japanese transport Katsura Maru sinks after running aground off Futsing, China, 25°37'N, 119°47'E
      1945 Europe:
      *Christmas parcels finally arrive for Canadian troops fighting in the Ortona sector of Italy. The time since the Holidays has been spent in static battle lines, watching the Germans from across the muddy fields north of the town. Spirits will be brighter today as reminders of friends and familiy bring home a little closer.
      *Escape attempt at Mauthausen concentration camp
      1945 Pacific:
      *Submarine USS Besugo, attacking Japanese convoy off Malay Peninsula, sinks Coast Defense Vessel No.144 off Cape Laguan, 04°32'N, 104°30'E.
      *Submarine USS Hardhead sinks Japanese merchant tanker No.19 Nanshin Maru, 05°40'N, 103°17'E.
      *USAAF B-24 attacks Japanese tanker Yashima Maru and forces her aground, damaged, off Flores Island.
      *Japanese merchant tanker No.3 Kinyu Maru is sunk by aircraft off Phantiet, French Indochina.
      1951 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
      1954 President Eisenhower reports detonation of 1st H-bomb, done in 1952
      1957 United Nations adopts a resolution calling for Israeli troops to leave Egypt
      1962 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.
      1968 Operation Hue City, Tet Offensive began in Vietnam.
      1971 Idi Amin seizes power in Uganda
      1977 Burn up of Salyut 4 Space Station (U.S.S.R.)
      1982 Government troops and Muslim-fundamentalists battle in Hamah Syria

      By Cap. Teancum:

      1781 - On this day in 1781, American General Nathanael Greene receives two bags of specie (coin as opposed to paper currency) from Elizabeth Maxwell Steele at her tavern in Salisbury, North Carolina--an incident later memorialized in a painting by Alonzo Chappel.

      General Greene spent the night of February 1 until midnight awaiting the remaining militia from the previous day’s encounter at Cowan’s Ford in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. But the militia never arrived at the appointed meeting spot, David Carr’s house on the road to the town of Salisbury, and General Greene soon learned of Brigadier General William Davidson’s death at Cowan’s Ford the previous day. He also learned that British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton’s Dragoons had launched a surprise attack on Davidson’s remaining forces gathered at Tarrant’s (or Torrence’s) Tavern six miles south of Carr’s, killing between 10 and 50 men. The battle-weary militia took significant casualties before alighting on horseback.

      Greene rode overnight and arrived at Steele’s Tavern for breakfast on the morning of February 2. Once there, Greene told his physician, who was also at the tavern, that he was hungry and penniless. After overhearing their conversation, Mrs. Steele saw first to Greene’s hunger with breakfast and then gave him the much-needed money to supply both him and his army.

      With his mood boosted, Greene inscribed the back of Mrs. Steele’s portrait of George III, “O George, Hide thy face and mourn,” before turning it to face the wall. The picture and inscription remain at the Thyatira Presbyterian Church Museum, in Salisbury, North Carolina.

      Greene’s circumstances improved greatly while in Salisbury. First, he garnered Mrs. Steele’s aid. Second, he discovered a collection of more than 1,700 Continental arms stashed away for the militia. In writing Baron von Steuben the following day, Greene happily observed that the Patriot’s “distribution of publick stores is enough to ruin a nation.”

      1916 - Two days after nine German zeppelins dropped close to 400 bombs throughout the English Midlands, the crew of the British fishing trawler King Stephen comes across the crashed remains of one of the giant airships floating in the North Sea.

      Developed by a German army officer, Count Ferdinand Zeppelin, and first flown in 1900, the zeppelin was an impressive aircraft by the beginning of World War I. With the capacity to carry five machine guns and up to 2,000 kilograms (4,400 pounds) of bombs, it could reach a maximum speed of 136 kilometers per hour (84.5 miles per hour) and a height of 4,250 meters (13,943 feet).

      The first zeppelin attack on England took place on January 19, 1915, when two of the airships bombed the English coastal towns of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn, killing a total of four people. The first bombing raid on London came on May 31 of that year, when a single zeppelin dropped 90 small bombs and 30 grenades on the city, leaving seven dead and 35 wounded.

      The raid of January 31, 1916, by nine zeppelins was one of the largest Britain saw during the war. The Germans bombed the West Midlands towns of Bradley, Tipton, Wednesbury and Walsall. Across the region, more than 70 people were killed and more than 100 injured in the attacks.

      Just before daybreak on February 2, King Stephen skipper William Martin spotted a downed airship partially submerged in the North Sea. The skipper and his crew waited at a safe distance until daylight when they confirmed the wreckage was that of a German zeppelin with the identification mark L-19. With three of its four engines failing, the L-19 had reportedly come under Dutch fire, which punctured its gas cells and brought it down, killing some of the crew.

      The nine unarmed men aboard the King Stephen saw that about 20 German soldiers had survived the crash. Fearful that the German airmen could easily overpower them and take control of the ship, Martin and his crew refused the soldiers’ pleas for help and did not take the men aboard, choosing instead to return to Britain to report their discovery to the authorities. The remaining crew of the L-19 disappeared with their craft. Word of the incident soon got out in both Germany and Britain--some saw Martin’s decision as a necessary one to protect his crew, while others, including some Britons, vilified Martin for what they saw as an unpardonable act of cruelty, even for wartime.

      1942 - On this day, Vidkun Quisling, a collaborator with the German occupiers of Norway, is established as prime minister of a puppet government.

      On April 9, 1940, German warships entered major Norwegian ports, from Narvik to Oslo, deployed thousands of German troops, and occupied Norway. German forces were able to slip through the mines Britain had laid around Norwegian ports because local garrisons were ordered to allow the Germans to land unopposed. The order came from a Norwegian commander, Vidkun Quisling, who was loyal to Norway's pro-fascist former foreign minister.

      Hours after the invasion, the German minister in Oslo demanded Norway's surrender. The Norwegian government refused, and the Germans responded with a parachute invasion. In September 1940, "commissarial counselors" in the control of the Germans replaced Norway's administrative council. Chief of these "counselors" was Quisling, who was given dictatorial powers and who proceeded to earn the enmity of Norwegians as he sent thousands of people to German concentration camps and executed members of the resistance movement.

      On February 1, 1942, the commissarial counselors formed a formal government loyal to Germany, with Quisling as its prime minister. When Germany finally surrendered in May 1945, Quisling was arrested by Norway's Allied liberators, tried for treason, and executed. His name continues to be a synonym for "traitor."

      1943 - On this day, the last of the German forces fighting at Stalingrad surrender, despite Hitler's earlier declaration that "Surrender is out of the question. The troops will defend themselves to the last!"

      The Battle of Stalingrad began in the summer of 1942, as German forces assaulted the city, a major industrial center and a potential strategic coup. But despite repeated attempts, the German 6th Army, under Friedrich von Paulus, and part of the 4th Panzer Army, under Ewald von Kleist, could not break past the adamantine defense by the Soviet 62nd Army, despite pushing the Soviets almost to the Volga River in mid-October and encircling Stalingrad.

      Diminishing resources, partisan guerilla attacks, and the cruelty of the Russian winter began to take their toll on the Germans. On November 19, the Soviets made their move, launching a counteroffensive that began with a massive artillery bombardment of the German position. The Soviets then encircled the enemy, launching pincer movements from north and south simultaneously, even as the Germans encircled Stalingrad. The German position soon became untenable. Surrender was their only hope for survival. But Hitler wouldn't hear of it: "The 6th Army will hold its positions to the last man and the last round." Von Paulus held out until January 31, 1943, when he finally surrendered. Of more than 280,000 men under Paulus' command, half were already dead or dying, about 35,000 had been evacuated from the front, and the remaining 91,000 were hauled off to Soviet POW camps.

      Pockets of German belligerence continued until February 2. Hitler berated Von Paulus for not committing suicide. Von Paulus, captured by the Soviets, repaid Hitler by selling out to the Soviets, joining the National Committee for Free Germany, and urging German troops to surrender on other battlegrounds in the USSR.

      1962 - The first U.S. Air Force plane is lost in South Vietnam. The C-123 aircraft crashed while spraying defoliant on a Viet Cong ambush site.

      The aircraft was part of Operation Ranch Hand, a technological area-denial technique designed to expose the roads and trails used by the Viet Cong. U.S. personnel dumped an estimated 19 million gallons of defoliating herbicides over 10-20 percent of Vietnam and parts of Laos from 1962 to 1971. Agent Orange--so named from the color of its metal containers--was the most frequently used.

      The operation succeeded in killing vegetation but not in stopping the Viet Cong. The use of these agents was controversial, both during and after the war, because of questions about long-term ecological impacts and the effect on humans who handled or were sprayed by the chemicals. Beginning in the late 1970s, Vietnam veterans began to cite the herbicides, especially Agent Orange, as the cause of health problems ranging from skin rashes to cancer and birth defects in their children. Similar problems, including an abnormally high incidence of miscarriages and congenital malformations, have been reported among the Vietnamese people who lived in the areas where the defoliate agents were used.

      1970 - Antiwar protestors take legal action in an attempt to prove that the Dow Chemical Company is still making napalm. Dow had claimed that it had stopped making napalm. Members of the antiwar movement filed suit against the Dow Chemical Company in a Washington, D.C., court. The plaintiffs were trying to force the company to disclose all government contracts to prove that the company was still making napalm.
      All warfare is based on deception.
      Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


      • Today's event:

        1141 Battle at Lincoln: King Stephen captured

        Today's book:

        Norman Knight AD 950-1204 by Christopher Gravett, Christa Hook (Illustrator)

        Book Description:

        Throughout the 11th and 12th centuries the Norman knight was possibly the most feared warrior in Western Europe. He was descended originally from the Vikings who had settled in Northern France under their leader Rollo in or around 911 at the behest of Charles the Simple and throughout the following centuries they remembered and built on their warlike reputation. This book shows how their military prowess was renowned throughout the known world and resulted in Normans conquering Sicily in 1060 and England in 1066, as well as participating in many important battles in Italy and playing a major part in the First Crusade.
        All warfare is based on deception.
        Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


        • February 3

          By Admiral:

          1368 King Charles VI of France (1380-1422)
          1805 Samuel Ryan Curtis, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1866
          1807 Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Gen, C.S.A., d. 1891
          1811 Horace Greeley, editor, "Go west, young man", inspired many, ultimately led to clash of civilizations.
          1817 Samuel Ryan Curtis, Major General Union volunteers, d. 1866
          1824 George Thomas "Tige" Anderson, Brig Gen, C.S.A.,
          1824 Nathan George "Shanks" Evans, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1868
          1831 Cyrus Ballou Comstock, Bvt Major General, Union volunteers, d. 1910
          1851 Johannes B van Heutsz, Lt-General/Gov-Gen of Dutch East Indies
          1894 Norman Rockwell, U.S., artist/illustrator, Sat Evening Post covers, Patriotic images in time of war.
          1902 Charles Lindbergh, aviator, Nazi dupe
          1907 James Michener, naval officer, author ("South Pacific")
          1909 Simone Weil, born in Paris, social philosopher/Resistance fighter, WW II
          1938 Vladimir Grigoryevich Fartushny, Russian Cosmonaut
          1939 Vladimir Yevgenyevich Preobrazhensky, Russian Cosmonaut

          474 Leo I, Byzantine Emperor (457-474)
          1399 John of Ghent, son of Edward III, Duke of Lancaster/King of Castile and Leon, at 58
          1451 Sultan Murad II of Turkey (1421-51)
          1468 Johann Gensfleisch Gutenberg, printer, revolutionized the printed word & it's spread throughout society in general.
          1697 Sjoucke Gabbes, Frisian sailor, buried on Dirk-Hartog Island
          1922 Christiaan R de Wet, South African Boer General, at 67
          1924 Woodrow Wilson, sometime 28th US President. Suffered debilitating stroke while in office. His wife conducted much of his day to day business afterwards.
          1947 Marc A "Pete" Mitscher, U.S. Vice Admiral, (WW II-Task Force 58), at 60

          1377 Mass execution: Robert of Geneva and John Hawkwood stage massacre in Cesena, Italy
          1488 Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Diaz lands the Cape of Good Hope 1576 Henry of Navarre (the future Henry IV) escapes from Paris
          1660 General Moncks army reaches London
          1781 Dutch West Indies island of St Eustatia taken by British
          1783 Spanish recognition, of US independence
          1801 Treaty ending Quasi-War ratified. US Senate approves peace treaty with France ending undeclared naval war that began 1798
          1861 Confederate States of America formed in Montgomery
          1864 Sherman's Meridian Campaign, in Mississippi occurs.
          1865 Hampton Roads Peace Conference: Lincoln and Stephens reach an impasse.
          1867 Prince Mutsuhito, 14, becomes Emperor Meiji of Japan (1867-1912)
          1901 Sumatra: Dutch troops under General Van Heutsz conquer Batu Ilie.
          1915 Turkish and German army reach Suez Canal. The attack ultimately fails.
          1917 US liner Housatonic sunk by German submarine. US/German diplomatic relations severed.
          1919 League of Nations: This, the 1st meeting of this ill-fated organization was held in Paris.
          1927 Uprising in Portugal: Against regime of General Carmona.
          1939 The first group of Canadian volunteers from the Spanish Civil War return to Halifax. There is a great controversy over whether they should have even been allowed back in the country. By fighting in the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion the volunteers broke Canadian law prohibiting enlistment in foreign armies. Of the 1,148 men who went overseas to fight against facism, 721 will finally return home.
          1940 Light cruiser USS Helena departs Montevideo, Uruguay, for Brazilian waters as her shakedown cruise continues. She has been "keeping an eye" on foreign shipping & naval elements.
          1940 U.S. passenger liner Manhattan is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities
          1941 US Navy Department G. O. #143. It establishes three independent fleets, each commanded by an Admiral. Admiral Husband E. Kimmel becomes Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Fleet (and also Commander in Chief U.S. Fleet in the event that two or more fleets operate together); Patrol Force U.S. Fleet becomes U.S. Atlantic Fleet under command of Admiral Ernest J. King; Admiral Thomas C. Hart continues as Commander in Chief U.S. Asiatic Fleet.
          1941 Action in the Pacific:
          *During routine exercises in Hawaiian Operating Area off Oahu, destroyers USS Dale and USS Hull contact what they believe is a submarine. With all U.S. boats accounted for, Commander Destroyers Battle Force orders USS Lamson to join USS Dale and USS Hull. The ships are to maintain contact and to take offensive action only if attacked. USS Mahan joins in search as well. With speculation that the only possible reason a submarine would be in those waters would be to obtain supplies or land agents, USS Lamson accordingly searches the shoreline east of Diamond Head.
          1942 Action in the Pacific:
          *Fil-American troops restore the Bagac-Orion line on Bataan
          *Submarine USS Trout delivers ammunition to Corregidor, P.I., and removes gold, silver, securities and mail. She uses the gold as ballast on the return voyage to Pearl Harbor.
          *Japanese naval land attack planes (Takao Kokutai) bomb ABDA operating base at Surabaya; other naval land attack planes (1st Kokutai) bomb Malang, Java. These raids indicate for the first time that substantial Japanese air forces have been moved south. En route home from Malang, 1st Kokutai aircraft report presence of the Allied naval force (ABDA) of Rear Admiral Karel W.F.M. Doorman, RNN off Madoera.
          1942 Action in the Atlantic:
          *Panamanian freighter San Gil is torpedoed, shelled, and sunk by German submarine U-103 approximately 15 miles south of Fenwick Island light, 38°05'N, 74°40'W. Two crewmen perish in the attack; Coast Guard cutter USCG Nike rescues the 38 survivors.
          1943 Action in the Pacific:
          *Aussie Kanga Force counterattacks from Wau, drives Japanese on Mubo. *Battleship USS Massachusetts begins operating in the Pacific.
          *U.S. ships shell Japanese island of Paramushiro in the Kuriles.
          1943 Command designated: U.S. Naval Forces Northwest African Waters is established with headquarters at Algiers.
          1943 Action in the Atlantic:
          *German submarine U-223 attacks Greenland-bound supply convoy SG 19 which is escorted by Coast Guard cutters USCG Tampa, USCG Escanaba, and USCG Comanche, and sinks War Department-chartered transport Dorchester about 150 miles west of Cape Farewell, Greenland, 59°22'N, 48°42'W, and damages Norwegian freighter Biscaya. Casualties on board Dorchester are heavy, 675 men (including 15 of 24 Armed Guard sailors) being lost. Four Army chaplains, representing four different faiths, bravely give up their lifebelts to soldiers who have none; all four perish with the ship.
          1944 Action in the Pacific:
          *Cruiser and destroyer gunfire supports landing of Army troops on Ebeye, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshalls.
          *Submarine USS Tambor attacks Japanese convoy in East China Sea, sinking fleet tanker Goyo Maru and merchant fleet tanker Ariake Maru about 200 miles southeast of Shanghai, 28°53'N, 124°19'E. Although damaged by depth charges from escort vessels, the submarine remains on patrol.
          *PBYs and USAAF B-25s (5th Air Force) attack Japanese convoy west of New Hanover and sink cargo ship Nichiai Maru, 03°27'S, 149°32'E.
          1944 Action in Europe:
          USAAF planes (8th Air Force) bomb German naval base at Wilhelmshaven, sinking accommodation ship Monte Pasqual and damaging minesweepers M 18 and M 19
          1945 Action in the Pacific:
          *Submarine USS Sea Robin damages Japanese transport Suiten Maru off Bawean Island N.E.I.
          Japanese river gunboat Karatsu [ex-Luzon (PR-7)] is scuttled as blockship at Manila.
          *Minesweeper W.102 (ex-HMS Waglan) is damaged (cause unspecified) north of Haitan Island 25°40'N, 119°50'E.
          *Merchant tanker No.3 Nanryu Maru is sunk by aircraft off Takao, Formosa.
          1945 Major air attack on Berlin; Almost 1000 Flying Fortresses drop 3000 tons of bombs on the city.
          1950 Nuclear physicist Klaus Fuchs arrested. He was charged with spying.
          1962 Cuban embargo: President Kennedy bans all trade with Cuba except for food and drugs.
          1965 Orbiting Solar Observatory 2: Launched into Earth orbit (552/636 km)
          1965 105 USAF cadets resign: They were caught cheating on exams.
          1966 Soviet Luna 9: 1st soft landing on Moon.
          1966 1st operational weather satellite: ESSA-1 launched by the US.
          1972 Nuclear test: By US at the Nevada Test Site.
          1982 Greatest helicopter lift: 56,888 kg, Podmoscovnoe, USSR.
          1989 Military coup: Dictator Alfredo Stroessner of Paraguay is overthrown.
          1994 US lifts trade embargo against Vietnam. It is a prelude to normalized relations - virtually non-existant since American involvment in the Vietnam conflict during the 60s & 70s.

          By Leatherneck:

          United States Marine Corps History (Timeline)

          1799 - Martinique
          Marines on board frigate United States assist in sinking the French privateer L'Amour de la Patrie off the island of Martinique.

          1801 - Quasi War
          The treaty ending the Quasi War with France is ratified by the U.S. Senate.

          1852 - Argentina
          Marines from the Brazil Squadron join British and French forces ashore to protect international lives and property in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during a revolution. In a skirmish with looters, the Marines kill four of them, and order soon returns.

          1911 - Commandants
          Following a long period of political indecision over the selection, President Taft confirms the acting Commandant, Colonel William P. Biddle, as the 11th Commandant of the Marine Corps.

          1929 - Nicaragua
          Lieutenant Herman Hanneken and a small patrol of Marines capture Manuel Jiron, one of Sandino's most effective generals.

          1932 - China
          Cruiser Houston (CL-30) lands her Marine detachment to reinforce the 4th Marines in Shanghai. Another 334 officers and men from other Pacific commands also arrive around this time.

          1941 - Bases
          A Marine Corps Air Station is established at Oahu's Ewa Mooring Mast Field (originally constructed for dirigibles in the 1920s) when the 2nd Marine Aircraft Group deploys there from Ford Island.

          1945 - Carrier Air
          VMF-216 and 217 begin going on board carrier Wasp (CV-18) at Ulithi, as part of the program to add fighter planes to fleet carriers to deal with the kamikazes. VMF-511 goes aboard escort carrier Block Island (CVE-106), the first results of the program to provide Marine air support for amphibious assaults.

          1947 - China
          The 1st Marine Division receives orders to cover the withdrawal of U.S. personnel from Peiping and prepare for its own departure from the country.

          1947 - Force Structure
          The first Volunteer Training Unit (VTU) is formed in Chicago. The VTU allows reservists not joined to a tactical unit to conduct some individual training, usually in staff or specialist fields.

          1950 - Force Structure
          3/5 rejoins the 5th Marines at Camp Pendletion and VMF-218 reports to El Toro.

          1953 - Korea
          1/5 conducts a daylight raid against Hills 31 and 31A, inflicting an estimated 400 casualties at a loss of 41 killed and 91 wounded.

          1955 - Force Structure
          The 3rd Engineer Battalion moves from Japan to its new home base on Okinawa. This marks the begining of a gradual shift of 3rd Marine Division from Japan to Okinawa, which is still under U.S. administration.

          1960 - Force Structure
          Commandant Shoup announces that due to increased personnel stability arising from the success of the four-year enlistment program, it will be possible to reactivate two of the recently disbanded six infantry battalions.

          1971 - Manpower
          The Marine Corps convenes a board to determine which lieutenant colonels, majors, and captains should be released from active duty to meet manpower reduction requirements.

          1998 - Mishap
          A Marine EA-6B on a training mission in Italy flies through a cable and sends a ski gondola crashing to the ground, killing 20 people.

          Semper Fi!

          (C) USMC: A Complete History by Marine Corps Association


          By Cap. Teancum:

          1797 - Battle of Imola. French troops routed Papal army.

          1807 - Deciding that Beunos Aires was too much trouble, Auchmuty said "the he** with it" and captured Montevideo on the Uraguayan side of the River Platte.

          1813 - Battle of Niquitas. Bolivar's Comlumbian Patriots defeated Spanish Royalists.

          1852 - Battle of Monte Caseros. Insurgents defeat Argentine President Rosas, who fled to England ending Gaucho domination in the Argentine Republic.

          1955 - After months of prodding by U.S. advisors, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem introduces the first in a series of agrarian reform measures. This first measure was a decree governing levels of rent for farmland.

          U.S. officials had strongly urged that Diem institute such reforms to win the support of the common people, but later critics maintained his land reform program began too late, progressed too slowly, and never went far enough. What the South Vietnamese farmers wanted was a redistribution of land from the absentee landlords to those that actually worked the fields, but Diem's program to return the land to the tiller was implemented halfheartedly and did little to meet the rising appetite for land among South Vietnam's rural population. Provisions for payment by peasants granted land created unnecessary hardships. Although 1 million tenants received some relief, more than 1 million received no land at all, and the lack of impartial enforcement agencies crippled many potential benefits. Instead of redistributing land to the poor, Diem's land reform program ended up taking back what the peasants had been given by the Viet Minh and returning it to the landlords, forcing peasants to pay for the land they considered theirs on impossible terms. In 1960, 75 percent of the land was owned by 15 percent of the people. The communists capitalized on unresolved peasant unrest throughout Diem's regime. Discontent towards Diem reached its height when dissident South Vietnamese officers murdered him during a coup in November 1963.

          1970 - The Senate Foreign Relations Committee opens hearings on the conduct of the war by the Nixon administration. Senator Charles Goodell (R-New York) said that Vietnamization (President Richard Nixon's program to transfer war responsibility to the South Vietnamese) had been a "great public relations success." Taking exception with Senator Goodell's assessment, Senators Harold Hughes (D-Iowa), Thomas Eagleton (D-Missouri), and Alan Cranston (D-California) testified in support of a Senate resolution calling for the termination of the American commitment to South Vietnam unless the Saigon government took steps to broaden its cabinet, stop press censorship, and release political prisoners.
          All warfare is based on deception.
          Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


          • Today's event:

            1865 Hampton Roads Peace Conference: Lincoln and Stephens reach an impasse.

            Today's book:

            The Civil War: Primary Documents on Events from 1860 to 1865 by Ford Risley

            Book Description:

            Read how the most pressing issues of the Civil War were argued over, shaped, and regarded by Americans north and south. News articles, editorials, and cartoons from the time offer a range of contentious and impassioned opinions and reports on the crucial events that precipitated, sustained, and eventually concluded this vital chapter in American history and politics. A startling mosaic of sentiment - often conflicting, always partisan, and much of it noble - emerges from the din of journalistic campaigning waged over the battle for public opinion on both sides of the Mason - Dixon line. Topical chapters offer multiple annotated documents related to twenty-four crucial topics and events occurring and debated during the War Between the States. Questions designed to stimulate written and oral discussions conclude each chapter. A full index and bibliography conclude the work. Beginning with Lincoln's election in 1860 and concluding with his assassination in 1865, The Civil War offers clear examples of a wide range of opinion about the military matters like the draft, the preparation for war, arming slaves, and the impact of the battles of Bull Run, Gettysburg, and Sherman's March to the Sea. Political issues are strongly represented as editorials and articles reacting to the southern states' secession, civil liberties and elections in the Union and the Confederacy are presented in equal measure. A strong and valuable resource for students and researchers of this pivotal period of American history.
            All warfare is based on deception.
            Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


            • February 4

              By Admiral:


              1698 Heinrich A Fouque, Prussian General
              1747 Tadeusz Kosciusko, Polish and American patriot
              1764 Carel H Verhuell, Dutch/French Vice-Admiral/Minister of Navy
              1819 Emperor Norton I of America (Joshua Norton)
              1826 Halbert Eleazer Paine, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1905
              1881 Kliment J Woroshilov, Marshal/President U.S.S.R., 1953-60
              1895 Hanns (Johann) Rauter, SS-Lt-General/SS police chief in the Netherlands
              1902 Charles A Lindbergh... isolationist, pilot, first to fly the Atlantic solo.
              1903 Frank Howley, Hampton, Brig General, Answers for Americans
              1917 Aga Yahya Khan, Pakistan military/politician
              1929 Mary Joan Nielubowicz, Rear Admiral/nurse

              211 Lucius Septimus Severus, Emperor of Rome (193-211), at 64
              1505 Joan of Valois, Queen of France/saint, at 40
              1781 Willem Crul, Admiral (West-Indies), in battle at 59
              1911 Peter A "Piet" Cronje, South Africa Boer General, at about 75

              634 Arabs defeat Byzantines at Gaza .
              900 Louis III, crowned King of Germany
              1508 Maximilian I assumes Holy Roman imperial title without being crowned
              1620 Prince Bethlen Gabor signs peace with emperor Ferdinand II
              1697 Led from Acadia by Father Louis-Tierre Thury, 150 Abenaki Indians attack the English settlement of York. Homes are pillaged and burned, although 30 settlers manage to hold off the attack on their stockade.
              1779 John Paul Jones takes command... Duc de Duras was procured from France by Benjamin Franklin. Jones promptly renamed her Bonhomme Richard in honor of Franklin & his earlier literary endeavors in common sense known as Poor Richards Almanac.
              1782 British garrison surrenders to French and Spanish fleet
              1787 Shays' Rebellion fails
              1807 French capture Amantea, Calabria. This after a month's siege and heavy losses.
              1809 British take their first French eagles: 62nd & 80th Regiments on Martinique.
              1813 A small armed party from Ft. Wellington (Prescott, Ont.) crosses the St. Lawrence to Ogdensburg, N.Y. in search of recent deserters. A number of them are apprehended and sent to the Elizabethtown (Brockville, Ont.) district jail pending a court martial.
              1861 Confederate constitutional convention meets in Montgomery, Alabama
              1865 Robert E Lee is named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Army
              1899 Philippine "Insurrection" begins
              1932 Japanese troops attack & occupy Harbin, Manchuria
              1938 Hitler seizes direct control of German Army and puts Nazis in key posts.
              1940 U.S. passenger liner Manhattan, detained at Gibraltar the previous day, is released, but not before British authorities seize 390 sacks of German mail. American diplomatic mail pouches, however, are not disturbed.
              1941 United Service Organization (USO) founded
              1942 Clinton Pierce becomes 1st U.S. General wounded in action in WW II
              1941 Action in the Pacific:
              *Search for submarine off Oahu, begun the previous day, continues. After destroyers USS Dale and USS Hull return to Pearl Harbor, destroyers USS Flusser and USS Drayton join USS Lamson in the hunt. Ultimately, however, the search is called off.
              1941 Action in the Atlantic:
              *US Fleet Landing Exercise (FLEX) No. 7 begins in Culebra-Vieques, Puerto Rico, area, with all available ships of the Atlantic Fleet and elements of the 1st Marine Division and the U.S. Army's First Division, to train "Army and Navy Forces in the amphibious operations incident to a Joint Overseas Expedition." Unlike FLEX No. 6 in 1940, bona fide transports are available for, and participate in, the maneuvers.
              1941 British tanks occupy Maus Libya.
              1942 Action in the Pacific:
              *Last Australian troops on Amboina surrender.
              *Australian-New Zealand naval command is established under comand of Vice Admiral H. Fairfax Leary.
              *Japanese reconnaissance flying boats (Toko Kokutai) contact and shadow allied force (Rear Admiral Karel W.F.M. Doorman, RNN) of four cruisers and accompanying destroyers (sighted the previous day by 1st Kokutai aircraft) attempting transit of Madoera Strait to attack Japanese Borneo invasion fleet. On the strength of that intelligence, Japanese naval land attack planes (Takao, Kanoya, and 1st Kokutais) bomb Doorman's ships, damaging heavy cruiser USS Houston (1st Kokutai) and light cruiser USS Marblehead (Kanoya Kokutai), 07°23'S, 115°47'E. Dutch light cruisers De Ruyter and Tromp are slightly damaged by near-misses (1st Kokutai). USS Marblehead's extensive damage (only by masterful seamanship and heroic effort does she reach Tjilatjap after the battle) results in her being sent back to the United States via Ceylon and South Africa; despite the loss of turret III (one-third of her main battery), USS Houston, however, remains.
              *(US) Asiatic Fleet ceases to exist organizationally (not formally abolished). Units of Asiatic Fleet are organized into Naval Forces, Southwest Pacific Area.
              *Submarine USS Sculpin torpedoes Japanese destroyer IJN Sukukaze as the latter patrols off Staring Bay, south of Kendari, Celebes, 04°00'S, 123°00'E.
              *Japanese ships sortie from Rabaul to pull troops from Guadalcanal
              *U.S. lands reinforcements and supplies on Guadalcanal.
              1942 Action in the Atlantic:
              *U.S. tanker India Arrow is torpedoed, shelled, and sunk by German submarine U-103 about 20 miles southeast of Cape May, New Jersey, 38°48'N, 73°40'W. Two of her men perish when the ship is shelled; 24 drown when two lifeboats are swamped. Fishing skiff Gitana rescues the 12 survivors 12 miles off Atlantic City, New Jersey.
              *Canadian armed merchant cruiser HMCS Alcantara comes across lifeboat from torpedoed U.S. tanker W.L. Steed (sunk by German submarine U-103 on 2 February) and rescues the three survivors she finds.
              1942 Action in the Med:
              *Veteran Aus 9th Div sails from Suez after two years in North Africa.
              1943 Action in the Pacific:
              *SBDs, TBFs, F4Fs, and USAAF P-40s from Henderson Field attack Japanese destroyer force en route to evacuate Japanese troops from Guadalcanal, damaging IJN Shirayuki (flagship), IJN Maikaze, IJN Kuroshio, and IJN Kawakaze. Admiral Hashimoto's force, however, extracts 3,921 soldiers. SOC (VCS Detachment RINGBOLT) sights, tracks, and illuminates the Japanese ships.
              *Submarine USS Tunny damages Japanese transport Tatsuwa Maru in the South China Sea, 21°30'N, 113°42'E.
              1943 Action in the Atlantic:
              *German submarines attack convoy SC 118; Coast Guard cutter USCG Bibb pinpoints location of U-187, which is sunk by British destroyers HMS Vimy and HMS Beverly, 50°12'N, 36°34'W. USCG Bibb later participates in driving off the four U-boats that try to close the convoy during the night.
              1944 Japanese launch major offensive against British in the Arakan, Burma.
              1944 Action in the Pacific:
              *TG 94.6 cruisers and destroyers bombard Japanese installations at Paramushiro, Kuril Islands, damaging cargo ship Kokai Maru.
              *Destroyers bombard Sarine Plantation, northwest coast of Bougainville, Solomon Islands; destroyer USS Claxton is damaged by return fire from Japanese shore battery, 05°49'S, 154°39'E.
              *Destroyer USS Charrette and destroyer escort USS Fair sink Japanese submarine I-175, 100 miles north of Jaluit, Marshalls, 06°48'N, 168°08'E.
              *PV-1s sink Japanese water tanker Goryu Maru off Emidj Island, Jaluit, 06°00'N, 169°44'E.
              *USMC PB4Ys (VMD 154) reconnoiter Truk in the first general reconnaissance of that important Japanese fleet base by U.S. planes.
              *US 7th Infantry Division completes capture of Kwajalein.
              1945 FDR, Churchill, & Stalin meet at Yalta... (ARGONAUT) Conference attended by President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and Russian Premier Stalin, begins. Matters discussed include the timing of the Russian entry into the war against Japan, and three postwar issues: the division of Germany, the extent of the Soviet sphere of influence in Europe, and the status of Poland.
              1945 Action in the Pacific:
              *Submarine USS Barbel is sunk by Japanese naval aircraft in South China Sea, between Borneo and Palawan, 07°49.5'N, 116°47.5'E.3
              *Submarine USS Pargo bombards Woody Island east of Tourane, French Indochina, destroying Japanese weather station and radio equipment, administration building, a jetty, and several fishing boats.
              *Submarine USS Spadefish sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Tairai Maru in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of Korea, 37°18'N, 125°22'E.
              1959 Keel of USS Enterprise. Laid at Newport News, it becomes the worlds first nuclear aircraft carrier.
              1961 Sputnik 7 launches into Earth orbit; probable Venus probe failure
              1965 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
              1967 U.S. launches Lunar Orbiter 3.
              1970 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
              1971 Apollo 14 lander Antares lands on Moon. (Shepard and Mitchell)
              1972 6th round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks ends in Vienna Austria.
              1973 Reshef, Israel's missile boat, unveiled.
              1976 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
              1985 Naval exercises canceled when U.S. refuses to tell NZ of nuclear weapons.
              1986 Israeli fighters intercept Libyan passenger plane.
              1988 Panamanian leader General Manuel Noriega indicted on drug charges.
              1993 Russian space agency tests a 82' wide space mirror.
              1993 Admiral Studeman, ends term as acting director of CIA.
              1994 20 die in armed assault on mosque in Khartum Sudan.
              1997 73 Israelis die when army copters collide.

              By Cap. Teancum:

              1860 - Spanish capture Tetuan, Morroco.

              1962 - The first U.S. helicopter is shot down in Vietnam. This helicopter was transporting South Vietnamese troops in the Mekong Delta area.

              1965 - McGeorge Bundy, American Special Assistant for National Security, arrives in Saigon for talks with Maxwell Taylor, U.S. Ambassador General. This same day, in North Vietnam, Soviet Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin arrives in Hanoi.

              1972 - A force of 824 Thai soldiers serving in South Vietnam, departs.
              All warfare is based on deception.
              Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


              • Today's event:

                1959 Keel of USS Enterprise. Laid at Newport News, it becomes the worlds first nuclear aircraft carrier.

                Today's book:

                The Big E: The Story of the USS Enterprise by Edward P. Stafford, Paul Stillwell (Introduction)

                Book Description:

                A lasting memorial to the USS Enterprise, this classic tale of the carrier that contributed more than any other single warship to the naval victory in the Pacific has remained a favorite World War II story for more than twenty-five years. The Big E participated in nearly every major engagement of the war against Japan and earned a total of twenty battle stars. The Halsey-Doolittle Raid; the Battles of Midway, Santa Cruz, Guadalcanal, the Philippine Sea, and Leyte Gulf; and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa are all faithfully recorded from the viewpoint of the men who served her so well. The author, a naval aviator, focuses on the exploits of the famous ship's air groups, capturing the reality of their encounters and provoking a range of emotions from readers.
                This superb study of a great ship, her crew, and the action they saw has been called one of the finest pieces of naval writing to emerge from the war. What it is like inside the cockpit of a Dauntless dive bomber as it bores in on its target or the effort required to unstick the ship's huge rudder when damaged by a bomb are just two of the nuggets Edward Stafford mined from the mountain of research and lengthy interviews he conducted to write the book. Literate and scholarly as well as highly dramatic, the book will appeal to historians and the general public alike.

                All warfare is based on deception.
                Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                • February 5

                  By Admiral:

                  1723 John Witherspoon, clergyman/signed Declaration of Independence
                  1788 Robert "Bobbie" Peel, British conservative PM/founder Bobbies
                  1840 Hiram Stevens Maxim, inventor of the practical machine gun/automatic single barrel rifle.
                  1897 Dirk U Stikker, director, Heineken/Dutch FM/NATO
                  1910 Martha van Och-Scholl, German/Dutch resistance fighter, WW II
                  1935 John J "Jannie" Geldenhuys, Supreme Commander - South Africa Army.
                  1947 Mary Louise Cleave, PhD/Astronaut, STS 61-B, STS 30.

                  45 -BC- Cato Uticensis, an opponent of Julius Caesar commits suicide.
                  1721 James Stanhope, 1st Earl of Stanhope, English General, at 47.
                  1822 Ali Pasha of Ianninia (Janina), Turkish governor.
                  1911 Petrus A Cronjé, Transvaal Boer General.
                  1922 Christiaan R de Wet, Boer General, at 67.
                  1943 Wim Gertenbach, Dutch resistance fighter (Slogan), shot by Nazis.
                  1943 General Hendrik Seyffardt, Dutch Quisling, killed by the Resistance.
                  1947 Ganzefles, Dutch nazi spy/Jew hunter, executed.
                  1948 Johann Blaskowitz, German General (surrendered at Wageningen), at 64.
                  1994 Hermann Abs, German banker to Adolph Hitler and Adrian Adenauer, at 92.

                  1488 Belgium: German Emperor Maximilian I caught.
                  1512 Europe: French troops under Gaston de Foix rescues Bologna.
                  1556 Europe: Kings Henri I and Philip II sign Treaty of Vaucelles.
                  1649 England: Prince of Wales becomes King Charles II.
                  1679 Europe: German Emperor Leopold I signs peace treaty with France.
                  1782 Western Mediterranean: Spanish recapture Minorca from English.
                  1795 Zealand Netherlands surrenders to French General Michaud
                  1831 Belgium: Jan van Speijk blows up his gunboat in Antwerp, killing about 30.
                  1849 Italia: Liberals proclaim "The Republic of Rome".
                  1855 China: The crew of USS Plymouth skirmish with Chinese troops.
                  1864 USA/CSA: Union troops occupy Jackson, Mississippi.
                  1865 USA/CSA: Battle of Hatcher's Run/Armstrong's Mill/Dabney's Mill, Va.
                  1875 Panama: Commander Edward Lull (USN) begins an expedition to locate the best route for a ship canal. The route he established was followed 30 years later in the construction of the Panama Canal to allow for seaborne trafic between the Pacific & Atlantic oceans.
                  1885 "Congo Free State": Leopold II of the Belgians establishes the murderous state.
                  1885 Nile: The column of British troops moving up the Nile River to relieve Khartoum halts today after news is received of the city's fall. Amongst the relief force is a contingent of 400 Canadian voyageurs who have been employed in manoeuvering the supply boats through the various river hazards. The only casualties suffered are those from tropical diseases.
                  1900 Natal: British troops under General Buller occupy Vaal Krantz.
                  1904 Cuba: American occupation ends.
                  1918 US: The 1st Marine Replacement Battalion sails for France in WW I.
                  1918 Europe: Stephen W Thompson is the first American pilot to down an enemy airplane.
                  1933 Dutch/German boundary passes. Marinus van der Lubbe has brought forth something of significant relivence in the near future.
                  1940 Dutch Supreme Commander: General Winckelman replaces General Reijnders.
                  1942 Action in the Pacific:
                  *Submarine tender USS Canopus is damaged by bombs, Lilimbom Cove, Mariveles, P.I.
                  *Submarine USS Pollack torpedoes Japanese cargo ship Heijo Maru 80 miles east-southeast of Tokyo Bay, Honshu, 34°15'N, 140°08'E.
                  *Singapore: heavy Japanese artillery fire from across the Straits of Johore. Final elements of the British 18th Div arrive, by sea!
                  1943 Action in the Pacific:
                  *TG 67.2 bombards airfield and installations at Munda, New Georgia, Solomons. After the rest of TF 67 joins TG 67.2, Japanese planes attack the force, near-missing light cruiser USS Honolulu and damaging New Zealand light cruiser HMNZS Achilles, 18 miles south of Cape Hunter, Guadalcanal. In the action, light cruiser USS Helena becomes the first U.S. Navy ship to use Mk. 32 proximity-fuzed projectiles in combat, downing a Japanese Aichi Type 99 carrier bomber (VAL) with her second salvo.
                  *CAM Div continues advancing on Guadalcanal. Japanese warships evacuate thousands of troops.
                  *USAAF B-17s and B-24s bomb Japanese shipping at Rabaul, New Guinea.
                  1943 Action in the Atlantic:
                  *Last nine survivors (including the Armed Guard unit commander) of U.S. freighter Alaskan, sunk by German submarine U-172 on 28 November 1942, utilizing a bailed-out lifeboat, reach Cayenne, French Guiana.
                  1943 Action in Europe:
                  *Amsterdam resistance group CS-6 shoots nazi general Seyffardt.
                  *Clandestine Radio Atlantiksender, Germany, 1st transmission.
                  1944 Action in the Pacific:
                  *US declares Kwajelein secured Japanese losses are 5,100, U.S. 142 dead.
                  *Submarine USS Rasher sinks Japanese tanker Kiyo Maru (ex-Norwegian Vigrid), in South China Sea, 05°46'N, 108°36'E.
                  *Aerial minelaying operations in the Marshalls continue: one PBY-5 (VP 72), flying from Tarawa, mines Schischmarov Strait, Wotje.
                  *Japanese guardboat No.5 Fukuyoshi Maru is wrecked following attack by USAAF B-24, Wotje Atoll, Marshalls.
                  1944 Action in the Atlantic:
                  PBM-3S (VP 203) sights German blockade runner Burgenland and summons light cruiser USS Omaha and destroyer USS Jouett. Gunfire and scuttling charges sink Burgenland, 07°29'S, 25°37'W.
                  1944 Action in Europe:
                  *The Perth Regiment is on meal parade this afternoon, near the Ortona sector of the Italian theater. A single German mortar lands in the midst of the troops, killing nineteen and wounding eighteen.
                  *358 RAF-bombers attack Stettin.
                  1945 British PM Churchill arrives in Yalta
                  1945 Action in the Pacific:
                  *Troops under General Douglas MacArthur enter Manilla
                  *Australian troops land on New Britain, further sealing off Rabaul.
                  *Japanese air attacks continue against Lingayen Gulf- bound forces in the teeth of heavy antiaircraft fire and combat air patrol. Of the minesweeping group, infantry landing craft (gunboat) LCI(G)-70 is damaged by kamikaze, small seaplane tender USS Orca and fleet tug Apache are damaged by near-misses of suiciders, 15°36'N, 119°20'E and 15°53'N, 120°00'E, respectively. Kamikazes attacking the bombardment and escort carrier groups succeed in damaging heavy cruiser USS Louisville and destroyer USS Helm, 15°00'N, 119°00'E, escort carriers USS Manila Bay, 14°50'N, 119°10'E, and USS Savo Island, 14°50'N,119°00'E, and destroyer escort USS Stafford, 14°00'N, 120°00'E. Suiciders also damage Australian heavy cruiser HMAS Australia and destroyer HMAS Arunta. Japanese escort destroyers approach minesweeping group but turn away at approach of destroyer USS Bennion and Australian frigate HMAS Gascoyne and sloop HMAS Warrego; subsequently, planes from TG 77.4 (escort carrier group) sink Momi 20 miles southwest of entrance to Manila Bay, 14°00'N, 120°20'E, and damage Hinoki and Sugi west of Manila Bay. TG 94.9, three heavy cruisers and six destroyers, together with USAAF B-24s (escorted by P-38s) jointly pound Japanese shipping and installations on Chichi Jima, Haha Jima, and Iwo Jima, Bonins. Approaching Chichi Jima, USS Dunlap, USS Fanning and USS Cummings damage landing ship T.107; USS Fanning sinks her, 26°27'N, 141°11'E. Off Chichi Jima, USS David W. Taylor is damaged by mine, 27°04'N,142°06'E, destroyer USS Fanning by gunfire. Off Iwo Jima, USS Dunlap, USS Cummings, USS Ellet and USS Roe sink landing ship T.154, 24°27'N, 141°20'E.
                  *TF 92, three light cruisers and nine destroyers, bombards Japanese installations (airfield and fish canneries) at Suribachi Wan, Paramushiro, Kurils.
                  *Destroyer escort USS Edwin A. Howard is damaged in collision with destroyer escort USS Leland E. Thomas off Mindanao, 09°48'N, 127°15'E.
                  *Minelayer USS Monadnock is damaged by grounding off Ilin Island Luzon, 12°22'N, 121°01'E.
                  *Submarine USS Cavalla sinks Japanese auxiliary netlayers Kanko Maru and Shunsen Maru in Java Sea, 05°00'S,112°16'E.
                  *Destroyer escort USS Brackett shells Japanese installations on Taroa, Marshalls.
                  *PB4Y-1s (VPB 111) sink Japanese midget submarine Ha.71 two miles southwest of Chichi Jima.
                  1958 UAR: Gamel Abdel Nasser nominated 1st president of United Arab Republic.
                  1958 US: Vanguard TV-3 back-up launches into Earth orbit; reaches 6 km
                  1962 France: President de Gaulle calls for Algeria's independence.
                  1963 Soviets lunar probe failure. The USSR suffered many unmanned lunar expeditionary failures in their quest to study the Earths own satelite.
                  1967 Nicaragua: Anastasio Somoza elected President. He was the 4th graduate of West Point to be elected President somewhere in the world.
                  1968 US: First Male Nurse Corps officer in Regular Navy, LT Clarence W. Cote.
                  1970 US: Nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
                  1973 Funeral for Lt Col William Nolde. He was the last US soldier killed in Vietnam War.
                  1974 U.S. Mariner 10 returns 1st close-up photos of Venus' cloud structure.
                  1980 Egypt: Parliament votes to end boycott of Israel
                  1983 France: Former Gestapo (Nazi) official Klaus Barbie was finally brought to trial in Lyon.
                  1987 USSR: Soyuz TM-2 launches.
                  1993 Grenade explodes in Sarajevo: killing 63 and injuring 160.

                  By Cap. Teancum:

                  1918 - HMS Tuscania is after being torpedoed sinks. A great deal of information about the ship and its history can be cheacked at:


                  1975 - General Van Tien Dung secretly crosses into South Vietnam to take command of the final offensive.

                  1989 - The last Soviet troops leave Kabul in Afghanistan and on the 16th they would leave the country for good. Read more at:

                  All warfare is based on deception.
                  Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                  • Today's event:

                    1918 US: The 1st Marine Replacement Battalion sails for France in WW I.

                    Today's book:

                    Over There: The United States in the Great War, 1917-1918 by Byron Farwell

                    Book Description:

                    "Over There" is an eloquent telling of the story of the American involvement in World War I. It covers all aspects of the American experience including domestic society and politics, army organization and soldier heroism.
                    In the early parts of the book, Farwell explains the series of German actions which gradually drove an isolationist nation to war. The tug of war, between interventionists such as Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, and isolationists lead by Sen Robert LaFollette, left Woodrow Wilson in the middle, his actions pleasing to no one. We read of the extreme Anti-German frenzy which arose after the declaration of war. The frenzy manifested itself in drill sergeants who repeated false reports of German atrocities, Billy Sunday's assertion that "If you turned Hell upside down you would find "Made in Germany" on the bottom' and mobs which stoned dashounds. Although Liberty Cabbage and Liberty Pups reverted to Sauerkraut and dashounds, German Shepherds remained Police Dogs and wristwatches, necessitated by uniforms devoid of watch pockets, remained popular.

                    With the declaration of war the problems turned to mobilization and equipment. One thing which surprised me was the meager American industrial contribution to the war. Where were the railroads and industry which had been so crucial to North victory in the Civil War, the arsenal of Democracy to come in World War II or the creators of cruise missiles and smart bombs? In World War I the U. S. was definitely a supplier of raw man power to use French and British aircraft and artillery.

                    General Perhsing's struggle to organize and preserve an American Army gets appropriate attention. With the introduction of U. S. Troops into battle the focus shifts to heroes and battles. Eddie Richenbacher, Quintin Roosevelt and Alvin York are just a few of the heroes mentioned. This book is not all praise, however. American shortfalls are reported and Pershing's leadership is critically examined.

                    Woodrow Wilson is the leader whose performance seemed to alienate almost everyone. To interventionists, including Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson was slow to enter the war, deficient in mobilization and weak in accepting an armistice, rather than demanding unconditional surrender.

                    This book is readable, enjoyable and informative. I highly recommend it for anyone with an interest in U. S. involvement in World War I.

                    All warfare is based on deception.
                    Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                    • February 6

                      By Admiral:

                      1637 Toyotomi Hideyoshi, unifier of Japan
                      1665 Anne Stuart, Queen of England (1702-14)
                      1756 Aaron Burr, Revolutionary War officer, 3rd VP, 1801-1805, duelist
                      1830 Marcellus Monroe Crocker, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1865
                      1832 John Brown Gordon, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1904
                      1833 James Ewell Brown "JEB" Stuart, Major General Confederate Army, KIA, 1864
                      1834 William Dorsey Pender, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d/w 1863
                      1890 Anton Hermann Fokker, avation pioneer
                      1908 Edward Lansdale, General/model, Quiet American, Ugly American
                      1911 Ronald Reagan, Cavalry Lt/USAAF Capt, FMPU; personnel officer 9th AF, 40th President. 1981-89
                      1912 Eva Braun, mistress of Adolph Hitler
                      1961 Yuri Ivanovich Onufriyenko, Russian Major/Cosmonaut, Mir, Soyuz TM-23
                      891 Photius, Byzantine theologist/Patriarch of Constantinople
                      1685 King Charles II of Great Britain
                      1695 Ahmed II, 21st Sultan of Turkey (1691-95)
                      1699 Jozef Ferdinand of Bavaria, heir of Spanish king Carlos II
                      1865 John Pegram, U.S. Confederate Brig General, KIA at 33
                      1943 HA Seyffardt, Dutch Lt-General/NSB "minister", at 71
                      1952 George VI, veteran of Jutland, King of Britain (1936-52)
                      307 End of the Chinese "War of the Eight Princes"
                      1508 Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman Emperor
                      1577 King Henri of Navarre becames leader of the French Huguenots.
                      1626 Huguenot rebels & French sign Peace of La Rochelle
                      1778 England declares war on France.
                      1778 France recognizes US, signs treaty of aid in Paris.
                      1782 Pto Mahon, Menorca, surrenders to the French, to commemorate which, mayonnaise is invented.
                      1832 US ship destroys Sumatran village in retaliation for piracy
                      1836 HMS Beagle/Charles Darwin reach Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
                      1840 Waitangi Day; treaty signed between Britain and Maoris of New Zealand
                      1861 English Admiral Robert Ritzroy issues 1st storm warnings for ships
                      1862 General Grant initiates a campaign in Mississippi Valley.
                      1862 Union gunboat squadron captures Fort Henry, Tennessee River after naval engagement between USS Conestago vs CSS Appleton Belle occurs.
                      1864 Skirmish at Barnett's Ford Virginia
                      1865 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
                      1899 Spanish-American War officially ends
                      1900 Battle at Vaalkrans, South-Africa (Boers vs British army)
                      1919 The last Canadian troops march out of German territory, ending their occupation duty. It is the Canadian Corps of Cyclists Battalion which brings up the rear of the Canadian Corps.
                      1920 Saarland administrated by League of Nations.
                      1922 Washington Naval Treaty: US, UK, Japan, France, Italy sign the disarmament treaty which was to provide for the limitation of naval armament of the pre-eminent & up & coming world naval powers.
                      1933 President von Hindenburg and von Papen end Prussian parliament
                      1939 Spanish Republican government flees to France
                      1940 German freighter Konsul Horn, which had departed Aruba on 7 January, reaches Norwegian waters having eluded or deceived the U.S. Neutrality Patrol as well as British and French warships.
                      1941 Battle of Beda Fomm: Italian Tenth Army destroyed by the British WDF
                      1941 British troops capture Bengazi, Libya
                      1942 Naval Coastal Frontiers--Eastern, Gulf, Caribbean, Panama, Hawaiian, Northwest, Western, Philippine--are redesignated as Sea Frontiers.
                      1942 U.S. and Britain establish Combined Chiefs of Staff.
                      1942 Action in the Pacific:
                      *Japanese land reinforcements at Lingayen Gulf.
                      *Japanese make local attacks on Bataan, but are beaten off.
                      *Japanese artillery on the Cavite coast, near Ternate, shell Corregidor, Fort Hughes, Fort Frank, Fort Drum and anchorage of Inshore Patrol off South Harbor, Corregidor; river gunboat Luzon is hit by a shell in her vacant admiral's quarters; there are no casualties.
                      1942 Action in the Atlantic:
                      *Unarmed U.S. freighter Major Wheeler, en route from Fajardo, Puerto Rico, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-107. There are no survivors from the 35-man crew.
                      *British freighter Hartlepool comes across lifeboat from torpedoed U.S. tanker W.L. Steed (sunk by German submarine U-103 on 2 February) and rescues the two survivors she finds; one of them will die in hospital on 10 February of exposure.
                      1943 Pacific:
                      *Submarine Flying USS Fish damages transport Nagizan Maru off Tinian, Marianas.
                      *USAAF planes sink Japanese cargo ship Gisho Maru, 04°30'S, 151°30'E.
                      *Japanese lose 24 aircraft in an attack on the Wau airfield, New Guinea.
                      *CAM Div reaches the Umasani River on Guadalcanal.
                      1943 Atlantic:
                      Efforts to protect SC 118 continue; USS Babbitt helps prevent attacks by three U-boats attempting to close the convoy.
                      1943 North African Theater of Operations under command of Lt. General Dwight D. Eisenhower is established.
                      1944 Burma:
                      *Chinese troops advance from the north.
                      *British Chindits begin infiltrating into the Japanese rear areas at every chance.
                      1944 Pacific:
                      USAAF A-20s and P-40s sink Japanese ships Kaiyu Maru and Takegiku Maru and damage Torihime Maru off Wewak.
                      1944 Atlantic:
                      PB4Y-1 (VB 107) sinks German submarine U-177 west of Ascension Island, 10°35'S, 23°12'W.
                      1945 Pacific:
                      *Battle for Manila, begins in earnest
                      *Over 4,000 American POWs are freed from prison camps on Luzon.
                      *Submarine USS Pampanito, attacking Japanese convoy, sinks merchant tanker Engen Maru about 200 miles northeast of Singapore, 06°22'N, 106°00'E.
                      *Submarine USS Spadefish (SS-411) sinks Japanese merchant passenger/cargo ship Shohei Maru off Port Arthur, Korea, 38°46'N, 121°28'E.
                      *Navy PB4Ys attack Japanese convoy in the Sakishima- Okinawa area, sinking small cargo ship No.77 Ume Maru.
                      *USAAF planes sink Japanese cargo ship No.3 Kinyu Maru at 12°50'N, 109°23'E.
                      *Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No.12 is damaged by aircraft, 36 miles northwest of Chichi Jima.
                      *Japanese tanker Obi Maru is sunk by mine laid by USAAF B-29 (20th Bomber Command) on 25 January in Johore Strait, 01°09'N, 103°36'E.
                      *Japanese hybrid battleship/carrier IJN Ise is damaged by mine, Singapore.
                      1945 Indian Ocean:
                      U.S. freighter Peter Silvester is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-862 in the Indian Ocean off the southeast coast of Australia, 34°19'S, 99°37'E; 7 of the 26-man Armed Guard perish with the ship.
                      1945 Europe:
                      *Russian Red Army crosses the river Oder
                      *8th Air Force bombs Magdeburg/Chemnitz
                      *U.S. freighter Henry B. Plant, in Antwerp-bound convoy TAM 71, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-245 at 51°19'24"N, 01°42'30"W; 7 of the 28-man Armed Guard perish in the abandonment. British minesweeper HMS Hazard and HM Trawler Sir Lancelot rescue survivors.
                      1951 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Argonne Atomic Lab (Ill)
                      1959 Missile Launch: US successfully tests the Titan Inter-Continetal Ballistic Missile.
                      1973 Vietnam: In accordance with the agreement at the Paris Peace Talks, Navy Task Force 78 begins Operation End Sweep, the mine clearance of North Vietnamese waters of mines laid in 1972.
                      1975 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
                      1984 Lebanon: Muslim militiamen take over West Beirut from Lebanese Army
                      1984 Muslim militiamen take over West Beirut from Lebanese Army
                      1988 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

                      By Cap. Teancum:

                      1917 - Germans sunk the SS California.



                      1962 - MACV, the U.S. Military Assistance Command for Vietnam, is formed. It replaces MAAG-Vietnam, the Military Assistance Advisory Group which had been established in 1950.



                      1965 - Viet Cong guerrillas attack the U.S. military compound at Pleiku in the Central Highlands, killing eight Americans, wounding 126 and destroying ten aircraft.
                      This one is treaky. There's sites refering that it actually happened on the 7th


                      My source for the 6th


                      1966 - President Johnson and South Vietnam's Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky meet in Honolulu. This meating would go on till the 9th of February.
                      All warfare is based on deception.
                      Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                      • Today's event:

                        1919 The last Canadian troops march out of German territory, ending their occupation duty. It is the Canadian Corps of Cyclists Battalion which brings up the rear of the Canadian Corps.

                        Today's book:

                        Shock Army of the British Empire: The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War by Shane B. Schreiber

                        Book Description:

                        This book is an operational history of the Canadian Corps in the battles of the final 100 days of World War I, beginning with the battle of Amiens, August 8, 1918, and culminating in the retaking of Mons on November 11, 1918, only hours before the war ended. During the late summer and autumn of 1918, the Canadian Corps, under Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Currie, played a crucial role in the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front. This work examines the operational, organizational, and tactical innovations developed by the Corps during this campaign and their subsequent effect on military thought. Six battles are examined for their planning, conduct, and lessons: the Battle of Amiens, the breaking of the Drocourt-Queant line, the Canal du Nord and Cambrai, the pursuit to Valenciennes, the storming of Mount Huoy, and the return to Mons.

                        All warfare is based on deception.
                        Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                        • February 7

                          By Admiral:

                          1478 Thomas More, lawyer/Lord Chancellor of England
                          1693 Anna Ivanova Romanova, Empress of Russia, 1730-40
                          1740 Adam-Philippe Custine, French Earl/General/MP
                          1817 Frederick Douglass, American
                          1817 Leroy Pope Walker, U.S. lawyer/Brig General/Confederate minister of War, 1861 d. 1884
                          1906 Henry Pu-yi, "The Last Emperor" of China, puppet Emperor of Manchukuo.
                          1926 Konstantin Petrovich Feokistov, U.S.S.R., Cosmonaut, Voskhod I
                          1932 Alfred M Worden, Jackson Michigan, Colonel USAF/Astronaut, Apollo 15.

                          1529 Count Baldassare Castiglione, the ultimate Courtier, b. 1478
                          1609 Archduke Ferdinand I of Tuscany
                          1857 Felix, Count of Merode, Belgian Minister of War, at 65
                          1865 John Henry Winder, U.S. Confederate Brig-General/provost marshal, at 64
                          1878 Pius IX (Giovanni Ferretti), reactionary pope (1846-1878)
                          1920 Alexander Koltsjak, Amiral/leader Russian counter-revolutionary, executed
                          1921 Prince Peter Kropotkin, Revolutionary anarchist, at 78
                          1937 Elihu Root, Secretary of War (1901-1905), State, Nobelist, at 91
                          1999 King Hussein of Jordan (1952-1999), of cancer at 63.

                          1522 Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish/Austrian branches.
                          1569 King Philip II forms inquistion in South America.
                          1609 Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany, Cardinal and patron of Galileo
                          1613 Michail Romanov (16) becomes Czar of Russia.
                          1792 Austria and Prussia sign anti-French covenant.
                          1795 Dutch Prince William V accepts British occupation of Dutch Indies.
                          1800 USS Essex becomes first U.S. warship to cross the Equator.
                          1815 Board of Naval Commissioners, a group of senior officers, is established to oversee the operation and maintenance of the United States Navy, under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy.
                          1862 Federal fleet attack on Roanoke Island, NC.
                          1864 Federal troops occupy Jacksonville FL.
                          1867 Three Royal Navy gunboats are in winter quarters around the Great Lakes. HMS Heron is birthed at Toronto; HMS Britomart at Dunnville on Lake Erie; and HMS Cherub at Goderich. The ships have been kept in Canadian waters as a deterent to further attempts by Fenian raiders to invade Ontario.
                          1881 Battle at Ingogo: Transvaal Boers beat superior British forces.
                          1883 Lt Colonel Borgnis-Desbordes founds Fort Bamako, Niger.
                          1900 British troops vacate Vaal Krantz, Natal.
                          1915 2nd Battle of Masurian Lakes: German armies surrounded a Russian army.
                          1933 Dutch troops kill two demonstrators in Suriname.
                          1933 Social-Dem meeting in Berlin "As thousands cheer" Marxism is dead.
                          1941 Leclerc's Free French attack Italians at Kufra, Libya.(falls Mar 1)
                          1942 FDR signs Executive Order 9054 establishing War Shipping Administration (WSA) to bring the control and operation of all U.S. merchant shipping under a single head. The WSA's most pressing task is to mobilize the shipping capacity of the country (the majority of which is still in private hands by the end of the year 1941) to bring it under single control so that vessels can be allocated more readily on the basis of overall shipping needs of the U.S. and the Allies.
                          1942 Action in the Pacific:
                          *Commander Naval Forces Southwest Pacific Area (Vice Admiral William A. Glassford) establishes headquarters at the port of Tjilatjap, on Java's south coast.
                          *Yacht Isabel rescues all 187 survivors from Dutch freighter Van Cloon, which had been torpedoed and shelled earlier that day by Japanese submarine I-155 and beached in a sinking condition off Java, 06°25'S, 111°25'E.
                          *Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-25 reconnoiters Sydney, Australia.
                          *Japanese submarines RO-61 and RO-62 are damaged in collision, Kwajalein atoll.
                          1942 Action in the Atlantic:
                          *U.S. freighter West Jaffrey is stranded off Halfbald Island, Nova Scotia, 43°36'N, 66°02'W, and wrecked. There are no casualties to either the merchant crew or the 14-man Armed Guard.
                          *Coast Guard cutter USCG Nike rescues all 37 survivors of U.S. tanker China Arrow, sunk by German submarine U-103 off Winter Quarter Lightship on 5 February.
                          *U.S. freighter Mary is damaged in collision with freighter Palimol at 24°50'N, 66°00'W, and proceeds to San Juan, Puerto Rico, for repairs.
                          1943 Action in the Pacific:
                          *U.S. troops advance on both coasts of Guadalcanal.
                          *SBDs, TBFs, F4Fs, and P-40s from Henderson Field attack Japanese destroyer force - 18 ships strong on the final mission from Rabaul to evacuate Japanese troops from Guadalcanal - damaging Isokaze and near-missing Urakaze.
                          *Submarine USS Growler is damaged by accidental ramming of Japanese storeship IJN Hayasaki and gunfire from the same vessel, 70 miles northwest of Rabaul, 03°34'S, 151°09'E. During this action, USS Growler's commanding officer, Commander Howard W. Gilmore, is mortally wounded. Rather than further hazard his ship, he orders USS Growler taken down. For his gallantry, Gilmore is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously. IJN Hayasaki is damaged in the encounter; USS Growler is forced to terminate her patrol.
                          *Submarine USS Swordfish is damaged when mistakenly attacked by USAAF B-17, 150 miles north of New Ireland, 00°12'N, 152°00'E, and terminates her patrol as a result.
                          *Submarine USS Trout damages Japanese tanker Nisshin Maru off Miri, 04°31'N, 114°52'E.
                          *Halsey authorizes " Cleanslate," the occupation of the Russell Islands.
                          1943 Chiang Kai-shek commits China to a new offensive in cooperation with the Allied powers.
                          1943 Action in the Atlantic:
                          *During continued fight to defend SC 118, Coast Guard cutter USCG Bibb drives off U-402, only to battle that submarine and U-456 later the same day. U-402, however, torpedoes and sinks U.S. tanker Robert E. Hopkins about 650 miles west of Northern Ireland, 55°14'N, 26°22'W. Only 1 of the 19-man Armed Guard detachment is lost; survivors are rescued by British corvette HMS Mignonette. U-402 also torpedoes and sinks U.S. passenger ship Henry R. Mallory at 55°30'N, 29°33'W; 49 of the 77-man merchant crew perish, as do 15 of the 34-man Armed Guard and 208 of 283 embarked passengers, primarily to exposure. Coast Guard cutters USCG Bibb and USCG Ingham rescue 227 men, five of whom die of their injuries.
                          *German submarine U-160 torpedoes and U.S. freighter Roger B. Taney, en route to Bahia, Brazil, 22°00'S, 07°00'W. Three crewmen perish in the explosion of the initial torpedo, but the rest of the 47-man merchant complement and the sole passenger survive, in addition to the 17-man Armed Guard.
                          1943 Shoe rationing begins in the US.
                          1944 Germans launch counteroffensive at Anzio, Italy.
                          1944 Action in the Pacific:
                          *Kwajalein Atoll is declared secured.
                          *Submarine USS Narwhal delivers supplies and evacuates certain people from near Balatong Point, Negros, P.I.
                          *Escort carrier USS White Plains and destroyer USS Caldwell are damaged in collision while transferring people at sea, Marshalls area.
                          1944 Action in the Mediterranean: Destroyer USS Ludlow is damaged by dud shell from German shore battery off Anzio, Italy.
                          1945 Action in China: Japanese capture U.S. airbase at Kanchow, China.
                          1945 Action in the Pacific:
                          *Motor torpedo boats PT-373 and PT-356 enter Manila Bay for night reconnaissance; these are the first U.S. naval units to enter that body of water since the surrender of Corregidor in 1942.
                          *General Douglas MacArthur returns to Manila.
                          *Destroyer escort USS Thomason sinks Japanese submarine RO 55 off Iba, Luzon, 15°27'N, 119°25'E.
                          *Submarine USS Bergall, attacking Japanese convoy off east coast of French Indochina, sinks Coast Defense Vessel No.53 and damages merchant tanker Toho Maru near Cam Ranh Bay, 11°56'N, 109°18'E.
                          *Submarine USS Guavina, attacking a Japanese convoy, sinks merchant tanker Taigyo Maru 250 miles south of Saigon, French Indochina, 06°45'N, 106°00'E.
                          *Submarine USS Parche sinks Japanese army cargo ship Okinoyama Maru, 29°09'N, 129°45'E.
                          *Submarine USS Ronquil damages Japanese army cargo ship Kuretake Maru, 31°46'N, 140°17'E.
                          *British submarine HMS Subtle sinks small Japanese cargo vessel Nanei Maru, 07°28'N, 94°56'E.
                          1945 Action in the Mediterranean: Motor torpedo boats PT-303 and PT-304, and British MTB 422, patrolling from Golfe Juan, France, engage southbound enemy convoy off Savona, Italy, sinking at least two vessels.
                          1945 European Theater: US 76th/5th Infantry divisions begin crossing Sauer.
                          1947 Arabs and Jews reject British proposal to split Palestine.
                          1948 Omar Bradley succeeds Dwight Eisenhower as Army Chief of Staff.
                          1950 US Senator Joe McCarthy begins his 'Witch Hunts', finds 'Communists' in the State Department.
                          1950 US & Great Britain recognize Bao Dai Vietnamese regime.
                          1955 Seventh Fleet ships begin evacuation of Chinese nationalists from Tachen Islands.
                          1962 JFK begins blockade of Cuba.
                          1965 Sustained air operations begin in N. Vietnam. In response to a Viet Cong attack on barracks area at Pleiku, South Vietnam, aircraft from US aircraft carriers, USS Coral Sea, USS Hancock, and USS Ranger conduct air strikes on North Vietnamese area near Donghoi. The nature of US involvment in the conflict escalates, not to be reduced to pre-strike levels for nearly 18 years to come.
                          1969 Al-Fatah-leader Yasser Arafat becomes president of PLO.
                          1974 Grenada gains independence from Britain.
                          1977 Soyuz 24 launches with 2 Cosmonauts.
                          1978 Ethiopian offensive in Ogaden desert.
                          1979 Colonel Benjedid Chadli succeeds President Boumedienne in Algeria.
                          1983 1st female Secretary of Transportation, Elizabeth Dole is sworn-in, effectively also becoming the 1st female civilian head of an American Armed Service branch - the United States Coast Guard.
                          All warfare is based on deception.
                          Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                          • Today's event:

                            1979 Colonel Benjedid Chadli succeeds President Boumedienne in Algeria.

                            Today's book:

                            The Call from Algeria : Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam by Robert Malley

                            Book Description:

                            The speed with which Algeria has gone from symbol of revolutionary socialism to Islamic battleground has confounded most observers. Charting Algeria's political evolution from the turn of the century to the present, Robert Malley explores the historical and intellectual underpinnings of the current crisis. His analysis helps makes sense of the civil war that is tearing Algeria apart.
                            Using contemporary Algerian politics as a case study of the intellectual movement labeled "Third Worldism," Malley's thoughtful analysis also elucidates the broader transformations affecting countries of the Third World that once embraced ideologies of state-centered radical change. Malley focuses on the interplay between politics, economics, and ideology to explain the rise, essential components, and precipitous decline of Third Worldism--a movement that attracted scholars and activists in both the developed and underdeveloped worlds from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. He relates the disillusionment with Third Worldism to the growing appeal in the Third World of economic liberalism, versions of political pluralism, and ideological movements that threaten the very existence of the central state.
                            At a time when the public increasingly is associating countries of the less developed world with Islamism, tribalism, and ethnic warfare, The Call from Algeria challenges our assumptions and offers a new perspective.

                            All warfare is based on deception.
                            Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                            • February 8

                              By Admiral:

                              412 St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople
                              1291 Afonso IV, King of Portugal (1325-57)
                              1712 L Joseph de Montcalm de Saint-Veran, French General in America, KIA, Quebec, 1759
                              1811 Edwin Denison Morgan, sometime Confederate Secretary of War, d. 1883
                              1817 Richard Stoddert Ewell, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1872
                              1820 William Tecumseh Sherman, army officer, U.S., d. 1891
                              1824 Barnard Elliot Bee, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA 1861
                              1828 Antonio Canovas del Castillo, Premier of Spain
                              1892 Fritz Todt,, German Reichs Minister, Organization Todt, head of Hitler's construction service.
                              1913 John Grandy, Brits RAF-Air Marshal

                              1587 Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, beheaded at 44
                              1676 Alexis Mikhailovich Romanov, the first Romanov Tsar (1636-1676)
                              1725 Tsar Peter I 'the Great' Romanov, of Russia, at 52
                              1942 Fritz Todt, Nazi construction minister, on his 50th birthday
                              1959 William J. 'Wild Bill' Donovan, Medal of Honor in WWI, OSS in WWII, at 76
                              1963 Abdul Karim Kassem, PM of Iraq (1958-63), assassinated in Baghdad at 48

                              421 Flavius Constantine becomes Constantine III, Emperor of West Roman Empire.
                              1601 Earl Robert Devereux of Essex armies draws into London.
                              1622 King James I disbands the English parliament.
                              1676 Fyodor II Romanov becomes Tsar of Russia (1676-1682)
                              1690 New York settlement put to the torch. French and Indian troops set Schenectady on fire.
                              1744 French/Spanish fleet sails, leaves Toulon.
                              1799 Cardinal Ruffo & 5,000 troops land in Calabria to free Naples from the French.
                              1807 Napoleon defeats Russians at Eylau.
                              1809 Franz I of Austria declares war on France.
                              1861 Birth of a nation? Confederate States of America organizes in Montgomery, Alabama.
                              1862 Battle of Roanoke Island: The Union gains control of Pamlico Sound. A joint amphibious force captures the island, which is key to Albemarle Sound.
                              1865 Martin Robinson Delany becomes the first black major in the US Army.
                              1890 Japan: USS Omaha sailors and marines assist Hodogary, Japan in subduing large fire consuming the city.
                              1904 Russo-Japanese War begins: Japanese attack Russian Fleet at Port Arthur.
                              1909 France and Germany sign treaty about Morocco.
                              1911 U.S. helps overthrow President Miguel Devila of Honduras.
                              1914 General Zamon becomes President of Haiti.
                              1915 Canadian troops are at the front for the first time as members of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry arrive in the fighting line in the St. Eloi sector.
                              1918 "Stars and Stripes" first published, in France.
                              1923 Nazi Party newspaper, Volkischer Beobachter becomes a daily.
                              1941 Pacific:
                              *Celebes: Japanese land at Makassar.
                              *Japanese begin crossing the Strait of Johore in armored barges to attack Singapore.
                              1942 Pacific:
                              *Japanese submarine I-69, which has been reconnoitering the atoll since 21 January, shells Midway.
                              *Japanese troops land at Gasmata, New Britain.
                              *Submarine S-37 attacks Japanese convoy in Makassar Strait, and torpedoes destroyer IJN Natsushio south of Makassar City, Celebes, 05°10'S, 119°24'E. S-37 survives resultant depth-charging.
                              *Japanese infiltration force at Quinauan Point, Bataan, is mopped up, supported by armed motor launches from submarine tender USS Canopus. Japanese planes, however, attack the boats, bombing and strafing them, killing three and wounding 15.
                              *British submarine HMS Trusty shells Japanese merchant coaster.
                              1943 Burma: Orde Wingate's Chindits begin raid against the Japanese.
                              1943 Pacific:
                              *Operation KE: Japanese destroyer force (Rear Admiral Hashimoto Shintaro) completes the evacuation of 1,796 troops from Guadalcanal.
                              *Submarine USS Tunny sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Kusuyama Maru off southwest coast of Formosa about
                              55 miles west of Takao, 22°40'N, 119°12'E.
                              1943 Atlantic:
                              *During continued efforts by German submarines against SC 118, U-608 unsuccessfully attacks destroyer USS Schenck.
                              *Swiss freighter Caritasi rescues 14 survivors of U.S. freighter Charles C. Pinckney, sunk on 28 January 1943 by U-514; eight of the 27-man Armed Guard survive their ordeal, as do six merchant sailors.
                              1943 Liberation of Kursk by the Red Army.
                              1944 In a report from Stilwell, a major Japanese offensive is imminent in Burma.
                              1944 Pacific:
                              Submarine USS Snook, in attack on Japanese convoy off the west coast of Kyushu, sinks transport Lima Maru about 30 miles southeast of the Goto Archipelago, 31°05'N, 127°37'E, damages army cargo ship Shiranesan Maru, and survives depth-charging by one or more of the convoy's escorts that include Patrol Boat No.38, auxiliary submarine
                              chaser No.5 Kyoei Maru and torpedoboat Sagi.
                              1944 Atlantic:
                              *Light cruiser USS Marblehead rescues the survivors of German submarine U-177, sunk by PB4Y (VB 107) on 6 February.
                              *U-762 sunk off Ireland.
                              1944 Mediterranean:
                              Destroyer USS Ludlow is damaged by shore battery fire off Anzio, again, 41°28'N, 12°30'E.
                              1945 Operation Veritable, the 1st Canadian Army's assault on the German defences in the Reichwald and Moyland Wood, begins today. The Canadians, along with four British divisions, invade German territory, which has been flooded by the remnants of the German army.
                              1945 Mediterranean:
                              *Destroyer USS McLanahan bombards German outpost on Italian Riviera, shelling troop concentration.
                              *Motor torpedo boat PT-308, in company with two British motor torpedo boats, operating from Leghorn, Italy, attack three northbound flak lighters off Point Moneglia. The MTBs draw fire while PT-308 scores damage on one flak lighter. A second allied attack is unsuccessful.
                              1945 Pacific:
                              *Philippines: Japanese resistance in Manila stiffens.
                              *TF 92, comprising three light cruisers and seven destroyers, sorties from Attu, bound for Matsuwa Island.
                              *Submarine USS Pampanito attacks Japanese convoy in Gulf of Siam, sinking gunboat Eifuku Maru off Cape Camau,
                              French Indochina, 07°05'N, 104°50'E.
                              *Japanese landing ship T.143 is run aground and abandoned southeast of the Pescadores Islands, 23°30'N, 119°40'E.
                              1958 Bombing of Sakiet Tunisia by French planes. 75 die.
                              1962 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
                              1963 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
                              1967 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
                              1971 South Vietnamese invasion of Laos.
                              1979 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
                              1984 Soyuz T-10 launches: It takes a crew of 3 to Salyut 7. It is the1st time 8 people are in space simultaneously.
                              1992 Ulysses spacecraft passes Jupiter.

                              By Cap. Teancum:

                              1743 - Battle of Campo Santa. Austrians block Spanish from joining the army of Prince de Conti during the War of the Austrian Succession.

                              1777 - Timothy Bigelow is named colonel.


                              1900 - British troops are defeated by Boers at Ladysmith.

                              1971 South Vietnamese army forces invade southern Laos in a operation called Lam Son 719. Check this awsome site, pay special atention to the audio.


                              1974 - Military coup in Upper Volta.
                              All warfare is based on deception.
                              Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


                              • Today's event:

                                1807 Napoleon defeats Russians at Eylau

                                Today's book:

                                NAPOLEON'S POLISH GAMBLE: Eylau and Friedland 1807 by Christopher Summerville

                                Book Description:

                                Napoleon's 1807 campaign against the Russians came close to being his first defeat. At Eylau the Emperor was outnumbered by the army of the Russian commander Bennigsen, yet he accepted battle. His reputation was saved by the flamboyant Murat, who led one of the greatest cavalry charges in history.

                                Christopher Summerville's gripping account of this bitterly fought clash and of Napoleon's subsequent triumph at Friedland is the first extensive study of the campaign to be published for a century.

                                The story is told in the concise, clear Campaign Chronicles format which records the action in vivid detail, day by day, hour by hour. Included are full orders of battle showing the chain of command and the fighting capabilities of the opposing armies.

                                All warfare is based on deception.
                                Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans