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In the service of Duroc, Grand Marshal of the Palace

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  • In the service of Duroc, Grand Marshal of the Palace

    RULES FOR THE SERVICE OF THE GRAND MARSHAL OF THE PALACE
    PUBLICATION OF BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE MANUSCRIT FRANÇAIS 11212
    From Charles-Eloi Vial's work
    Paleographer archivist, 2010 Foundation Napoléon scholarship holder, Doctor of History at Paris-Sorbonne University, Charles-Éloi Vial is currently curator in the Manuscripts department of the National Library of France. Manuscript 11212 has been digitized by the National Library of France.

    Just as he was about to leave for the Russian campaign, the Grand Marshal of the palace, Duroc, decided to leave clear and precise instructions for those under him regarding the running of the imperial household during his absences. The resulting rulebook of 55 articles for imperial palace domestic service was a synthesis of all the service rulebooks that had been written since the Consulate for the domestic administration of the Tuileries Palace, though it also selected certain specific rules regarding court journeys and specific crown palaces.
    This rulebook, the manuscript of which is held at the French Bibliothèque Nationale, provides extraordinary evidence for the daily life of the 248 servants employed at the Tuileries Palace up to the end of the First Empire. This document details the duties of the different sorts of servants (prefects of the palace, butlers, footmen, frotteurs, linen maids and chambermaids) and describes the correct way for organizing voyages, how the Office, wine cellar and kitchens should function, even specifying levels of wages and the meals served to employees according to the level of importance within the hierarchy of the Household or Maison.
    The document also dovetails with the First Empire memoir accounts, such as those of Bausset, Constant, Ali and Roustam, not only in their description of their daily tasks but in their accounts of life at the imperial Court and the course of Napoleon’s days.

  • #2
    From his appointment as governor of the Tuileries Palace on November 20, 1801 [29 Brumaire An X]1, General Géraud-Christophe-Michel Duroc began to set up the administration of the Palace of the First Consul, the organization of which was fixed at during years X and XI. From that time, many service regulations, for the use of the palace's civil and military personnel, were drafted, printed, copied and displayed at the Tuileries, Saint-Cloud and Malmaison, then, after 1804, in the various palaces of the Crown. The first of these, relating to etiquette, was signed in March 1802, when Bonaparte began to surround himself with a court and receive diplomats during solemn audience2.
    1 Paris, Bibliothèque Thiers, manuscrit Masson 362, pièces 55, 56 et 57.
    2 Jean Tulard, Napoléon et la noblesse d’Empire, Paris, Tallandier, 2001, p. 57.


    Some of these regulations, describing specific points of the functioning of the palace, were gradually drafted by Duroc between 1804 and 1813, such as the Réglement des palais impériaux (Regulations of the imperial palaces), the Réglement pour l’organisation des palais impériaux (Rules for the organization of the imperial palaces), the Réglement pour les appartements du palais imperial (Rules for the apartments of the imperial palace) or the Réglement pour le mobilier imperial (Rules for the imperial furniture) : they were printed and distributed within the palaces, in the form of posters or booklets, and "each sentry box , each office, each post had its copy”3. Other "local" regulations for sedentary palace staff were also drafted by governors, adjutants, and concierges. Finally, several regulations were established by the various heads of the Grand Marshal'sservices: for kitchens, cellars, linen, interior police, in particular4.
    3 We will read in particular Pierre Branda, Napoleon et ses hommes, Paris, Fayard, 2011, p. 67. A poster showing the main regulations of the service of the Grand Marshal, dated January 1, 1812, is thus annexed to the French manuscript 11212, along with a Consigne Générale pour les palais impériaux (General Instruction for the imperial palaces), dated January 1, 1811 and a Consigne Générale pour les factionnaires des palais impériaux (General instructions for the sentries of the imperial palaces) and a poster recalling the Honneurs militaires (military honors), both dated January 1, 1812.
    4 These are currently kept at the Archives Nationales, O2 6, dossier 1.

    The oldest known general regulation is the Réglement pour la Maison du Premier Consul (Regulation for the House of the First Consul), dated September 24, 1803 [1er Vendémiaire An XII] 5. He first consecrated the role of "governor of the palace" of Duroc, who foreshadowed his duties as Grand Marshal of the palace. But at the same time, he was also designated as "Grand Maître de la Maison" (Grand Master of the House), because he was responsible for the embryos of all the services of the Grand Officers, whether the Grand chambellan (Grand Chamberlain), the Grand écuyer (Master of the Horse), the Grand veneur (Great huntsman). Duroc also assumed other more administrative responsibilities, close to those of the future Intendant General of the Crown, in charge of personnel, budgets, as well as payments of personnel, suppliers and providers of the House of the First Consul. For accounting matters, Duroc was quickly seconded by a Treasurer of the Government, Martin-Roch-Xavier Estève, appointed in December 1803. Within this administration, the budgetary rules were strictly respected, and Bonaparte absolutely kept an eye on all spending. In this, the consular court already innovated compared to that of Versailles and placed itself resolutely in the optics of a modern administration, while gradually restoring the traditional curial services6. This first regulation of September 1803 thus initiated the revival of the administration of the Court and of the Crown property. It was the first step towards the establishment of the complex administration of the House of the Emperor, definitively established in July 1804.
    5 Archives Nationales, O2 16, dossier 1, pièce 4.
    6 The importance of the regulations of September 24, 1803 was well noted by the architect Fontaine, who copied them entirely in his Journal. He was astonished, as soon as November 1802, on the appearance of the word "budget" imposed by Bonaparte, which evoked for him the establishment of new accounting rules. See: Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, Journal, 1799-1853, Paris, École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-arts, Institut français d’architecture, Société de l’Histoire de l’Art français, 1987, vol. 1, p. 56 and 65-66.

    At the beginning of the Empire, modifications were quickly necessary, and a first Règlement pour le service du Grand maréchal du palais (Regulation for the service of the Grand Marshal of the palace) was drafted. Duroc brings together "the Premier préfet du palais (first prefect of the palace), the prefects, the Premier maître d’hôtel contrôleur (First controlling butler) and the butlers, the chefs de cuisine (kitchen) and chefs d’office, the sommelier (wine-butler), the argentier (in charge of the silverware), the chefs de lingerie (household linen), the chefs d’éclairage (lighting) and the chefs de fourrière” and read them publicly the new regulation, which was five pages long and 28 articles7. The latter is due to both administrative regulations and etiquette, at least for everything relating to the meals taken by the Emperor and the Empress, and this in the absence of a ceremonial still clearly structured. Although undated, this document was probably drafted some time before another additional regulation, relating to the furnishing of large and small apartments, some passages of which also referred to meals8.
    7 Archives Nationales, O2 16, dossier 1, pièce 5, Règlement pour le service du Grand maréchal du palais, [an XIII].
    8 [Title 1:] Large apartments;
    [Art. 1:] The anterooms and first drawing-rooms will be furnished with wide benches and stools similarly covered in Savonnerie tapestry. The door-curtains and folding-screens will be of the same material, there will be no curtains. Tables and the number of strap beds required for service will be provided for these rooms.
    [Art. 2:] The second drawing-rooms, waiting rooms, music and game rooms, lounges of princes and L.L.M.M. will be furnished with two armchairs only for Their Majesties and with a sufficient number of folding stools covered in tapestry or silk fabric . Curtains, door-curtains or folding-screens will be of the same fabric. We will add a few consoles with candelabras.

    [Art. 3:] Council room: a large round table covered with a rich carpet, a single armchair for S.M., leather chairs around the table and folding stools around the apartment.
    [Art. 4:] Bedroom: an armchair on each side of the bed, a toilet chair, a sofa, folding stools, dressers and curtains, screen, door-curtains of the same fabric as the furniture.
    [Art. 5:] The anterooms, first drawing-rooms, vestibules, will be lighted with quinquets (oil tank lamp) and large lanterns; there will be chandeliers in the other rooms.
    [Art. 6:] We will put clocks in the main rooms and especially in those of service. There will be covers for all these pieces of furniture, they will only be removed on the days of the ceremonies and in the palaces where the sovereigns will be.
    [Title 2:] Small apartments and interior apartments;
    [Art. 7:] The apartments will be furnished with all kinds of furniture, back seats and folding seats. If the dining room is one of the small apartments, it will be furnished with sufficient chairs, with two armchairs for Their Majesties. If L.L.M.M. eat in one of the rooms of the Grand Apartments or of Honor Apartment, we will use folding chairs and stools that should be there. Arrested on 16 thermidor An XIII [August 4, 1805]. The Grand Marshal of the Palace, Duroc. (Archives Nationales, 184AP 3, fonds Duroc).

    Subsequently, the Etiquette du palais impérial (etiquette of the imperial palace), printed in 1806 and reviewed in 1810, far from describing only the pumps of the Court, brought very important practical details on the functioning of the House, in particular on the role and attributions of the officers: the various regulations signed by Duroc during the Empire made frequent reference to them, in particular the main regulation, that of 1812, which will be discussed later, which immediately refers readers to Chapter II of the Etiquette, the one which specified the attributions of the Grand marshal of the palace, the governors of the palaces, governors, deputy governors, prefects of the palace, “maréchaux du Logis” (marshals of the houses) and the secretary general of the service of the Grand marshal. The Etiquette also specified numerous points on the customs to be observed during meals, on ceremonies, travel, security, and the relations between the Grand Marshal and the other Grand Officers, notably the “Grand écuyer” and the “Grand chambellan”. It was therefore an essential document, with concrete utility for the daily functioning of the palace.

    However, in 1806, the Grand Master of Ceremonies had not thought of specifying the role and responsibilities of all the employees of the various services of the Emperor's House. Only the duties of the officers had been defined, and the daily organization of work and the division of tasks between the various employees had not been subject to any regulations. The Grand and First officers therefore had to continue to develop specific regulations, which were posted in the outbuildings of the palaces, noted in the order registers, kept and punctually reminded to the employees. Duroc himself signed many, concerning either general administration points, or the procedure to follow for the procurement, travel allowances, meals, travel, management of household linen, silverware , the functioning of the cellar and the kitchens, or the organization of the service in certain particular circumstances, such as trips or large ceremonies. Undoubtedly, in the absence of clearly established operating rules, the need for organization and rationalization of the service was constantly felt: in 1810, Napoleon again declared during a Board of Directors of the House that "the current organization [of the service of the Grand Marshal] seems to have been made at random9.
    9 Quoted by P. Branda, Napoléon et ses hommes…, p. 139.

    Comment


    • #3
      A LATE REGULATION

      It was not until a late date, in 1812, shortly before leaving for the Russian campaign, that Duroc, who was preparing to leave the palaces unattended for many months, became concerned with laying down on the paper a complete regulation of its administration, detailing the whole operation of the service of the Grand Marshal of the palace: this regulation, which came to supplement the Etiquette of the imperial palace, made the synthesis of the instructions already written since the beginning of the Empire and gave a formal framework to the uses and organization of the work developed in the palaces since the Consulate.

      The original was left in the hands of the palace secretary general, Emmanuel-Sigismond Viollet-le-Duc, known as Le Duc (1769-1844): 53 sheets long, it is bound in long grain red morocco, and bears, at the bottom of each page, a "D." initials affixed by Duroc. On the following sheets, several additional regulations were copied, including a statement of the personnel of the services of the Grand Marshal and the ‘Grand Chambellan’, a regulation concerning the clothing, another the port of the undress and full livery outfits, another the tables, another on the distribution of wood, oil and candles, a last on retirement pensions, followed by several copies of posters posted in the various Crown palaces.

      The secretary immediately had a copy of these regulations drawn up immediately, which was bound in full green shagreen with long grain, and which is today preserved in the Napoleon fonds of the Archives Nationales10. Proof that the document was well disseminated, the Tuileries concierge quickly copied certain passages in his order register11. Presumably the concierges of the other imperial palaces did the same. A later copy, made for the historian Frédéric Masson, is also kept at the Thiers library12. The original of the regulations is now kept in the collection of French manuscripts of the Manuscripts department of the National Library of France, where it was cataloged under the French symbol 11212. It was sold in July 1851, for 25 francs, by Nanine de Taxo (1798-1873), third daughter of Emmanuel-Sigismond, who had married Alexis-Domique de Taxo13, a time office manager in the administration of the Civil List of Louis-Philippe: remained in the family of secretary of Duroc, this copy of the regulations perhaps had, in the years which followed the Empire, a role of reference document for the administrators of the House of Bourbons then of the Civil List of Orleans.
      10 Archives Nationales, 400AP 4.
      11 Library Thiers, ms. Masson 103, registre d’ordre des Tuileries, p. 42 and following.
      12 Library Thiers, ms. Masson 102.
      13 Geneviève Viollet-le-Duc, Les Viollet-le-Duc : histoire d’une famille, documents et correspondance, Paris, Romain Pages éditions, 2000, p. 24.

      These regulations immediately became a valuable working tool for the service of the Grand Marshal. The employees and the administration carefully complied with Duroc's precepts, even after his disappearance. On November 18, 1813, Le Duc thus sent a report to Caulaincourt, ‘Grand Ecuyer’ and Grand Marshal by interim, containing comments on the service regulations, in which he explained that "the principles of good organization are devoted to it". Le Duc put forward the role of the three essential entities which worked with the Grand Marshal, and who could replace him if necessary, in case of absence or unavailability: the "secretary general of the palace, curator of the archives", the "quartermaster of the palace, responsible for accounting, that is to say, checking accounts and quotes", and finally "the control office, composed of the first controlling butler and 4 sub-controllers". Together, they were to maintain no less than 36 registers. These three groups had authority over all the rest of the service, which they were also responsible for supervising, whether they were subordinate officers such as the fourriers du palais, the chefs de la Bouche (all services of a monarch’s table __ bouche=mouth), the chefs de l’office (pantries), the chefs de l’argenterie (silverware), the chefs de la porcelaine, but also small staff, with the entire livery service, the kitchen service, the office service or cellar service14. The impressive structure of this administration, extremely hierarchical, where all the details seem to be codified, responded in reality to a more flexible daily organization, where the personalities of certain officers of the House played a big role, and where adaptations could be envisaged according to the context or circumstances.
      14 Paris, National Library of France, department of French Manuscripts, 6577, fol. 14, Le Duc's report to Caulaincourt, Paris, November 18, 1813. The report had to be ordered some time earlier by the Grand écuyer to facilitate his interim, but it was probably coming a little late: Henri-Gatien Bertrand was appointed Grand Marshal of the Palace on the same day.

      Comment


      • #4
        FROM PRECEPTS TO REALITY

        The organization of services within the palace
        At the top of the hierarchy, Duroc was responsible for the administration of the Crown palaces. He had the privilege, as Grand Officer, to work directly face-to-face with Napoleon who regularly dictated his orders to him. He also had the responsibility of his employees, he had to watch his budget carefully, he commanded the military service inside the imperial residences as well as the escort pickets which protected the Emperor and the Empress in their movements. He was regularly called upon to collaborate with several actors, without whom the House could not function properly: first of all, the Intendant General of the Crown, who validated the annual budgets, linked the different services to each other and acted as the interface with the intendances and administrations of the Garde-meuble (furniture guard), of the buildings, of the forests or of the Crown estates. He was also in contact with the Treasurer of the Crown, who made available to him the funds necessary for the payment of wages and suppliers. He had to collaborate closely with the ‘Grand écuyer’, who supplied the horses and cars during the Emperor's trips and journeys, with the Grand Chambellan, on whom depended the service of the Chamber and the cabinet of the Emperor, responsible for the service inside of the apartments of the sovereigns and whose employees worked jointly with those of the Grand Marshal, and finally with the Colonel General of the Service Guard, responsible for the security of the Emperor outside the palaces. Duroc also corresponded directly with the Furniture Guard Administrator, Desmazis, who supplied the furniture needed to furnish the palaces and outbuildings, as well as the furniture and tents used during the campaigns.

        In order to assist Duroc well, several employees inside the palace played an essential role by combining administrative, control and surveillance functions. The secretary general of the palace and secretary of the Grand Marshal, Le Duc, was first responsible for the drafting and dissemination of the regulations, as well as the maintenance of certain registers as well as the accounting and administrative records. He also played the role of a transmission belt with the other departments of the House of the Emperor: he took care of Duroc's correspondence, taking the minutes of his letters, copying them into the correspondence register and establishing and sending shipments. During campaigns or trips, he stayed in Paris where he centralized the mail and files received, and he selected the most important papers to be transmitted to the Imperial Headquarters for Duroc to examine. It was therefore he who ensured the continuity of the service of the Grand Marshal in his absence and who liaised with the employees of the various palaces. The analysis of the letters sent by Duroc during the campaigns and the confrontation with the register of his correspondence15 thus make it possible to know which cases were deemed worthy in Paris to be submitted to the Grand Marshal despite the distance, and under what conditions and under what deadlines this last could answer: the timetable of the Empress, the management of the imperial theaters and the payment of the aids and pensions appear for example among the businesses evoked in priority by the Grand Marshal during the campaign of Russie16.
        15 Archives Nationales, 400AP 3 and 4, minute registers of Duroc's correspondence, Grand Marshal of the Palace (1801-1813).
        16 We refer to the letters written by Duroc to his secretary between May and November 1812 (BnF, Ms, Fr. 6580).

        Below Duroc and his secretary was the premier maître d'hôtel contrôleur (first controlling butler) of the service of the Grand Marshal. This position was first occupied by Charles-Louis Pfister, former intendant of the House of General Bonaparte and then of the First Consul, a faithful servant, who nevertheless "fell into insanity" during the campaign of 180917. He was then replaced by Jean-Louis Colas, named Colin, former first chief of office. Its control functions consisted in verifying the accuracy of contracts awarded with suppliers and accounting documents. He was assisted by two deputy controllers, Pierre-Charles Guillet and Augustin Liebert, who checked the documents before transmitting them to the quartermaster of the palace, responsible for centralizing the payment memories, checking the accounts of the department and submitting the pieces signed by the Grand Marshal18. Since March 1806, the post of quartermaster of the palace was occupied by Mr. Jean-Sauveur Marie Ertault, born October 8, 1770, former quartermaster of the 16th regiment of Chasseurs of the Guard, with the rank of captain19.
        17 BnF, Ms, Fr. 6578, fol. 115, Duroc’s report to the Emperor, Paris, 2 janvier 1813.
        18 P. Branda, Napoléon et ses hommes…, p. 143.
        19 Like his colleague the quartermaster of the stables, Ertault was also in direct contact with the treasurer-payers of the Crown, the best known of whom was Guillaume Peyrusse, who advanced the money for the expenses of the House during travel and campaigns.

        The prefects of the palace, a function created in November 1801, were four in number. The first of them were Auguste-Laurent de Rémusat (1762-1823), who became Premier chambellan (First Chamberlain) in 1804, Jean-François Didelot (1769-1850), who left his post after a few months, when he was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Stuttgart in October 180220, Jean-François Fontaine de Cramayel (1758-1826), former introducer of ambassadors at Versailles, who became master of ceremonies in 1804. The one who remained in office the longest was Jean-Baptiste-Charles Legendre Luçay, first prefect of the palace, who nevertheless rarely occupied his duties due to his state of health. The best known of these was Baron Louis-François-Joseph de Bausset (1770-1835). He was appointed in 1805, at the same time as Alexandre-Charles-Nicolas de Saint-Didier (1778-1850), who became an auditor at the Council of State in 1810, and who was replaced by Marie-Léonor-Louis Ambroise de Cussy (1766-1837). They supervised, sometimes from quite a distance, the service de la Bouche , the lighting, the heating, the laundry, the silverware and the livery, maintaining the list of the staff and approving the payment statements of employees21. In addition to their frequent staff checks, they were responsible for monitoring procurement with suppliers, checking the quality of the products delivered for the House, checking the drafting and keeping of the various inventories of equipment. They fixed the number of tables and meals served daily at the palace, decided the menus, and had the butlers, chiefs of office and chiefs de cuisine under their responsibility. They attended the Emperor's meal and directed the merry-go-round of butlers, of valets tranchants (young servants in charge of cutting meat), sommeliers (wine-butler) and other couvreurs de table (the one who sets the table, in a big house).
        20 The latter remained in office for only a few months. He was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Stuttgart, before becoming chamberlain in 1810.
        21 Luçay also had, from December 1802, the office of Superintendent of the Opera, which was transferred to the Premier Chambellan Rémusat in 1807. David Chaillou speaks of the "catastrophic" management of Luçay (we read on this subject Napoléon et l’Opéra : la politique sur la scène (1800-1815), Paris, Fayard, 2004).

        Comment


        • #5
          Ordinary butlers supervised the work of the heads of silverware, glassware and porcelain, as well as that of the heads of the kitchen, of the office (pantry) and of the cellar. After 1807, Napoleon's ordinary butler was François Guignet, dit Dunant, Bonaparte's first chef de cuisine since 180222. He was replaced in his former post by Jacques-Noël Farcy. The Empress's ordinary butler was Laborde. One of the two butlers was to be on duty at the palace at all times and to attend the meals served to the sovereigns. Four other ordinary butlers served the palace: Rueff, Gérard, Dunant fils and Mieusset23. Their task of watching equipment, staff, deliveries and the quality of cooked meals must have been heavy: in 1813, the kitchen service alone employed 89 cooks, aides de fourneaux (stove helpers), garçons de cuisine (kitchen helpers) and pastry cooks24.
          22 The Empress's ordinary butler was Jean-Dominique Richaud, who had been brought up, like Dunant, in the House of the Princes of Condé (Marie-Jeanne-Pierrette Avrillion, Mémoires de Mademoiselle Avrillion, première femme de chambre de l’Impératrice Joséphine, Paris, Ladvocat, 1833, t. 1, p. 30.
          23 Archives Nationales, O2 14, p. 41.
          24 P. Branda, Napoléon et ses hommes…, p. 145-147.

          Two fourriers des palais (responsible for ensuring food and accommodation for the Court) were appointed in 1806: Pierre Deschamps and Augustin Baillon25. They were joined by Pierre Emery and Joseph Picot from July 180826. All four were originally fourriers from the elite gendarmerie of the Guard, which partly explains their recruitment, because the fourriers des palais were responsible for the security of the imperial dwellings, jointly with the maréchaux des Logis (lodgings), the governors and especially their assistants, who exercised the military command of the palace under the authority of the Grand Marshal. The fourriers were mainly responsible for security at parties and shows for the Court. They also had authority over the livery service, led by a premier valet de pied (first footman), which was a veritable small army. According to the staff reports of the Grand Marshal of the Palace, the livery service in 1812 included no less than 84 people: 2 first footmen, 8 portiers d’appartement (apartment doormen), 4 coureurs (runners), 6 valets de pied feutiers (responsible for directing the heating), 64 footmen (see Table 1)27. The fourriers were in charge of the "outside" service, as opposed to the valets and ushers, who depended on the Grand Chamberlain and took care of the "inside" service, that is, the apartments of the sovereigns.
          25 BnF, Ms, Fr. 6578, fol. 55, Duroc’s report to the Emperor, Paris, March 21, 1806.
          26 BnF, Ms, Fr. 6577, fol. 87, Hunebourg’s letter, Secretary of War, to Duroc, Paris, July 18, 1808.
          27 BnF, Ms, Fr. 6577, fol. 67, « service reports of the Grand Marshal of the palace», 1813.

          Footmen were in turn required to set tables, welcome or guide visitors of the palace, carry messages, watch and maintain the chimney fires and the lighting. Finally, 14 frotteurs (floor polishers) and 12 handymen were responsible for the daily maintenance and fight against dust. The livery workers could be called upon all the time, and they stayed on site: strap beds were unfolded every evening in the drawing-rooms when the lights went out and folded up at dawn28.
          28 The officers and the service pages also slept in the service drawing-room, on simple strap beds (Louis-Constant Wairy, Mémoires de Constant, Paris, Ladvocat, 1830, vol. 2, p. 69).

          Between 1804 and 1808, there was also an office of deputy to the Grand Marshal, which was eventually abolished29. Its holder was also maréchal des logis du palais since 1806. It was Philippe de Ségur (1780-1873), son of the Grand Master of Ceremonies, former squadron chief in the 13th regiment of Chasseurs. He was joined in 1808 by a second maréchal des logis (marshall of the lodgings), Carnouville, auditor at the Council of State. The latter were specifically responsible for the distribution of accommodation on long trips.
          29 It was not until 1808, when the palace deputy was removed, that the Grand Marshal appointed governors in all the imperial palaces, in order to have a correspondent on the spot (Archives Nationales, 400AP 4, register of the correspondence of the Grand Marshal, letter from Duroc to General Reynaud, Paris, May 27, 1808).

          In addition to their responsibilities relating to security, when traveling, the marshals of the lodgings had authority over the fourriers of the palace. For all trips to the Crown palaces, the fourriers prepared the accommodation with the help of the concierge, responsible for maintaining the palaces in the Emperor's absence. They had thus, several days before the arrival of the Emperor, to invest and inspect the palaces, to heat, to clean and refurnish the apartments, to ensure the state of the reserves of wood, oil and candles, kitchen utensils, to bring in the necessary household linen, dishes, glassware and silverware, and finally chalk out guest accommodations.

          Comment


          • #6
            Image1.png

            Comment


            • #7
              Some special cases: trips, campaigns and unforeseen
              No regulation, however, could accurately describe the procedure to be followed during military campaigns or long voyages, where the unexpected was frequent. Certain testimonies and a few additional documents allow us to better understand the functioning of the service of the Grand Marshal in these exceptional situations.

              Before each departure, Napoleon dictated to Duroc instructions on the date of departure, the guests, the escorts, the luggage and of course the routes. The Grand Marshal then got in touch with the Colonel General of the Guard in service, who was responsible for organizing the service of regiments responsible for protecting cars and luggage, with the ‘Grand écuyer’, who warned his employees who prepared the horses of saddle and draft and which sent horses to the various relay stations. He also warned the persons designated to be on the journey, that they were certain very well-placed servants like Constant who had to prepare the luggage30, or ministers and councilors of state designated to follow the Emperor. He also sent messages to local authorities, mayors, prefects, sub-prefects and bishops who had to deal with preparing accommodation, restoring - sometimes at great expense and in haste - the apartments intended for the Emperor, to organize receptions, parties and visits, and set up an honor guard: an aide-de-camp was often dispatched to the site ten days in advance to coordinate these efforts.
              30 BnF, Ms, Nouv. Acq. fr. 28061, fonds Charavay, classeur no 66, extract from a letter from Duroc to Constant, s. l., s. d.


              Several days before each departure, the 'fourriers' were responsible for alerting the palace staff, keeping it secret if possible, then to organize the departures of the various groups of servants and officers of the Cabinet, the Chamber and the Wardrobe that were to hit the road. Duroc and Caulaincourt had to work in close collaboration in order to regulate the departures of these convoys - we then spoke of "service" - which followed or preceded the Emperor and his suite, each time 12 hours apart: arriving in the palace , the accommodation where the bivouac where he was to settle, Napoleon found his apartments ready and the servants at work for half a day already. When he left, the last convoy left 12 hours after him: the employees paid the suppliers, compensated the accommodation owners and finished packing part of the luggage, while a courier was left to intercept the latest dispatches from Paris .

              During the travels of the House, the employees of the Grand Officers had to live in the same cars. Article 3 of the decree regulating the service of field crews, signed by Napoleon at Schoenbrunn in 180931, indicated for example that the employees of the Grand Chamberlain and those of the Grand Marshal were to be distributed on board the 12 cars intended for "service people” : “2 calèches (an open four-wheels, 2 or 4-seat carriage always with a rear folding roof on the rear) for the Chamber; 1 wardrobe car; 4 cars for la Bouche; 2 fourgons (a covered four-wheel carriage for goods or animals transport) for la Bouche (1 suspended); 2 fourgons for tents; 1 gondole (usually these were large public vehicles on an undercarriage of berlina for the transport of up to 12 passengers on benches facing each other)for footmen. Total: 12 cars ”32.
              31 Archives Nationales, O2 89, pièce 136.
              32 Article 11 specified that "light service", which was to accompany the Emperor on his rapid journeys during the campaigns, was composed of "pack mules and people on horseback". It was to be “composed of 8 pack mules for 3 canteen crews, 6 pack mules for two bed crews, 3 pack mules for a tent crew, 2 reserve mules. Total: 20 pack mules. ; 1 valet on horseback, 1 butler on horseback, 2 cooks on horseback, 12 footmen on horseback, 2 stablemen. Total: 8 people, altogether 28 horses or mules in the light crew ".


              Teams from the Grand Marshal and the Grandes écuries (grand stables) could be sent several weeks in advance to wait for the Emperor or even be left behind in anticipation of a possible return, sometimes for long months. This was for example the case in Bayonne in 1808, where a page, of the elite gendarmes, 15 saddle horses, a valet and a team of cooks waited at the Château de Marrac from July 21 to November 3, the date of return of Napoleon and the start of the Spanish campaign33.
              33 BnF, Ms, Fr. 6599, « Voyages de l’Empereur ».


              During the campaigns, a marshal of the lodgings was sent forward to requisition and prepare accommodation for the House or to erect the famous campaign tents. He was accompanied by the fourriers of the palace, usually responsible for preparing accommodation for the Court during trips, and whose task was particularly complicated during trips and military campaigns. During the voyages in the provinces of the Empire, they invested the prefectures, sub-prefectures and the episcopal palaces where the imperial suite was to lodge. In the campaign, if the fourriers pitched the Emperor's tent, they had to take care of preparing accommodation in the castles or houses that were requisitioned, and where Napoleon had to be able to return to his habits: "When the Emperor spent the night in a room, those responsible for making his accommodation threw out the window, for more rapidity, all the furniture in it, until the room was completely put in naked, and placed in place the legendary small campaign furniture34. Napoleon's decisions could singularly complicate their work: during the Russian campaign, he envisioned three different routes for the army, and sent teams of fourriers to prepare quarters for headquarters in three different sectors35.
              34 Adrien de Plancy, Souvenirs du comte de Plancy (1798-1816), Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1904, p. 221.
              35 L.-C. Wairy, Mémoires de Constant…, vol. 5, p. 50.


              Employees of the service de la Bouche, divided into several teams, also set out in advance to the place where the Emperor was to stay, where they unpacked the cooking utensils intended for travel as well as the campaign silverware. They then prepared supplies and meals for the various tables in the imperial suite. According to Constant, they never moved without their fourgons:
              “[The service de la Bouche] had a car roughly in the shape of the coucous (horse-drawn carriage, two-wheeled, pulled by a horse, a kind of cabriolet, which provided passenger transport on demand, in the suburbs of Paris) from Place Louis XV in Paris, with a large cave (portable furniture where liquors are kept__cave=cellar) and a huge vache (large stagecoach basket covered in leather__vache=cow). The ‘cellar’ contained Chambertin wine for the Emperor, and fine wines for the table of the great officers. Regular wine was bought on the spot. In the ‘cow’ were cookware and a portable stove; in the car, a butler, two cooks and a stove boy. There was also a large fourgon loaded with provisions and wine to fill the cellar as it emptied. All of these cars were a few hours ahead of the Emperor's. It was the Grand Marshal who designated the place to have lunch. We went down either to the archdiocese, or to the town hall, or to the sub-prefect, or finally to the mayor, for lack of administrative authorities. When he arrived at the designated house, the butler agreed on supplies; the stoves were lighting, the spindles were turning ... "36.
              36 L.-C. Wairy, Mémoires de Constant…, vol. 3, p. 252.


              If the Emperor's House always took to the road with well-furnished fourgons and supplies for several weeks,37 the Bouche controllers still had to make purchases on the spot, which could obviously cause problems in the occupied regions or in full winter. In January 1807, during Napoleon's stay at the Warsaw Palace, it cost, for example, 38,733.72 francs to supply the kitchens, 6,199.30 francs for the Office, and 24,264.26 francs for the cellar38. In July 1813, in Dresden, charges for the Bouche cost 34,753.29 francs, those of the Office 9,533.20 francs, and those of the cellar 9,120.05 francs39.
              37 We will read in particular Frédéric Masson, « Composition and organization of the Emperor Napoleon’s war crew in 1812 », in Carnet de la Sabretache,
              1894, no 2, p. 9.
              38 Archives Nationales, O2 8, fol. 101 et 108.
              39 Archives Nationales, O2 14, p. 109-112.


              Even in wartime, butlers, valets tranchants and couvreurs de table took care of the service, whatever the circumstances, the material difficulties or the risks involved: in April 1809, Napoleon's butler , Pfister, thus disappeared in the middle of the battle, and Napoleon believed that he had been taken prisoner by the Austrians40. In reality, the butler had lost his mind, perhaps due to a trauma caused by the violence of the conflict.
              40 Marie-Jeanne-Pierrette Avrillion, Mémoires de mademoiselle Avrillion, première femme de chambre de l’impératrice Joséphine, Paris, Ladvocat, 1833, t. 2, p. 134.


              Employees of the Bouche, of the Office and of the cellar also sometimes did not have to serve the Emperor. Constant reminds us that Napoleon did not always have lunch at the table, served by a butler. He also sometimes had a cold meal at the "good franquette": "Sometimes also the Emperor stopped in the open field, went down, sat under a tree and asked for his lunch. Roustam and the footmen drew supplies from His Majesty's car, which was furnished with small silver pans covered, containing chickens, partridges, etc. ". The First page Pétiet tells, for example, that he had the opportunity, in 1811, to share a chicken leg with the Emperor in the middle of a Norman forest: “we opened a tin box where was roasted poultry, the 'Emperor took it by one thigh and told me to pull the other; he also gave a member to the squire on duty and another to the Grand Marshal41: this type of detail, revealed by memories and obviously absent from archival sources, makes it possible to better understand what daily life was like within the House of the Emperor, and how etiquette and service could adapt to the circumstances. But to arrive at such a capacity for adaptation, it was first necessary to define precisely the role of each one: precise regulations were essential for the proper functioning of the service.
              41 Sylvain Pétiet, « Memories of a page of the Emperor», in Société historique et scientifique des Deux-Sèvres, procès-verbaux, mémoires, notes et documents, 4e année, 1908, 2e partie, p. 47.

              Comment


              • #8
                PRESENTATION AND TRANSCRIPTION
                The French manuscript 11212, entitled Règlement du service du Grand maréchal (Regulations of the service of the Grand Marshal), has been transcribed and edited in accordance with the original text: the spelling and conjugation of the period have been maintained, the abbreviations have been developed in square brackets, the numbers given in full has been left as is, just like those presented in Roman or Arabic numerals. Some omissions, including missing words, have been added in square brackets. The construction of the regulations in titles and articles was also respected. However, for a better understanding of the text, it was chosen to return a few additional articles: certain intermediate passages which had not received article numbers were thus marked "bis" and "ter". Comments on certain passages, as well as citations from other documents or from testimonies of contemporaries, have been referred to in notes.

                In addition, two old regulations, dated year XI and 1804, found in the National Archives, were also edited, for purposes of comparison, with the text of 1812. In the appendix, one will find other documents, bound in the same manuscript: the state of the tables served to the employees of the Grand Marshal and the Grand Chamberlain during the year 1812. This last document was transcribed in the form of tables respecting the construction of the original document. This state of the tables completes the Règlement du service du Grand maréchal du palais (Service Regulations for the Grand Marshal of the Palace). After the meticulous description of the daily organization of work and the regulations to which the employees were subject, the distribution of tables and the list of dishes served according to the position in the hierarchy reveals another aspect of the daily life of employees of the service of the Grand Marshal : at the table as at work, each individual occupied a very specific place, strictly defined by the regulations.

                Comment


                • #9
                  THE RULES FOR THE HOUSE OF THE FIRST CONSUL, SEPTEMBER 24, 1803

                  Art. 1: The governor of the palace fulfills the functions of Grand master of the House.
                  Art. 2: A prefect of the palace is responsible for everything related to the maintenance of buildings and their furniture, new construction, work of all kinds to be done by the architects and the library of the First Consul;
                  A prefect of the palace is responsible for everything related to the maintenance of parks and gardens, work to be done for their embellishment, and the chapel and music;
                  A general inspector stable officer is responsible for all surveillance on the staff and equipment of the various crews composing the stable;
                  A captain general for hunting is responsible for the conservation of the forests affected for the First Consul and for the management of the hunting crew;
                  Each of the heads of these services is at the same time controller of the expenses made for the service for which he is responsible;
                  The Treasurer of the government controls and settles the payments to be made for the service of the House of the First Consul.
                  Art. 3: At the beginning of each year, the governor of the palace proposes to the First Consul the general state of the expenses to be made for all the services of his House during the whole year.
                  These expenses will be divided into three chapters:
                  1st chapter: staff costs, containing salaries, pensions, emoluments and wages;
                  2nd chapter: expenditure on equipment;
                  3rd chapter: unforeseen expenses other than those included in the first two chapters and which can only take place after a specific order from the First Consul.
                  At the end of each year, the governor of the palace submits to the First Consul the general account of the expenses made during the year for the service of his House.
                  Art. 4: The expenses decided for the year cannot, under any pretext whatsoever, and under the responsibility of the heads of each service, be exceeded.
                  The Treasurer of the government has it settled by a twelfth each month, on statements controlled by him and supported by accounting documents, a quote and the order under which each expenditure was made.
                  These states must be arrested by the head of the service who will have given the order to make the expense and approved by the governor of the palace.
                  Art. 5: The Intendant de la Maison (House Intendant) will be responsible for the interior expenses, consumption, wages and clothing of the service staff and those of the interior.
                  Art. 6: Salaries, wages and pensions are paid by the government treasurer on simple receipts from the stakeholders.
                  The wages are paid on the state of the land certified by the respective heads of each service, verified by the controller of expenditure and fixed by the governor of the palace.
                  Art. 7: No discount may be granted under any pretext; the five per cent that the architects and the Intendant withheld from their expenses for buildings and furniture in St. Cloud will no longer be renewed. The treatment granted to them by the First Consul from the year XII must take the place of all the emoluments to which they could claim.

                  Approved by the First Consul.
                  Signed "Bonaparte" by the 1st Consul.
                  [Signed by] the Secretary of State "Hugues Maret"
                  For copy, Saint-Cloud, the 1st vendémiaire An XII,
                  The g[enera]l gov[ernor] of the palace.
                  Duroc.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    REGULATIONS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE GRAND MARSHAL OF THE PALACE (1804)


                    [Art.] 1: The Gd Mal of the palace having assembled the First prefect and the prefects, the 1st controlling butler and the butlers, the chefs de cuisine (kitchen chief) and the chefs d’office (pantry chief), the sommelier (wine-butler), the argentier (silverware chief), the chefs de lingerie (household linen chief), d’éclairage (lighting) and of fourrière (attic or building where supplies are stored), they will be read this regulation.
                    [Art.] 2: All persons attached to the service of L.L.M.M. are obliged to serve themselves and cannot commit to serve in their place without the express permission of L.L.M.M.
                    [Art.] 3: No person can be admitted to the service of L.L.M.M., none can be dismissed, even for the lowest places, without M. le Grand Maréchal du Palais being informed.
                    [Art.] 4: The Gd Mal of the palace will visit or have the 1st prefect visit the kitchens, offices, cellars, silverware, linen, ‘fourrière’ and store at the beginning of each month, and daily by the service prefect, by the controlling butler and by the butlers, to ensure that everything is kept clean and that everyone knows the people who are employed there. It is expressly forbidden to allow entry into places where meals are prepared for the service of L.L.M.M. to persons other than those who have duties to fulfill there.
                    [Art.] 5: The controlling butler and the butlers assemble at the end of each week to decide on the menu of the service and supplies for the following week, and the statement of expenditure for the past week. Both must be approved by the service prefect.
                    [Art.] 6: At the end of each month or at the beginning of the following one, the Gd Mal will assemble the 1st prefect, the two prefects and the controlling butler to check the expenditure, the supplies and the consumptions of the past month and pay for the following month's service. Intendant Gal of the House will send the commissioner or the controller he has appointed to this meeting, Mr. the Gd Mal of the palace’s secretary will hold the pen.
                    [Art.] 7: Three registers will be kept. In which one of these regulations will be recorded, and all those that may be made thereafter, as well as the orders of the Gd Mal du palais.
                    In the other will be saved the menus [details] of all ordinary and extraordinary expenses.
                    In the 3rd will be registered the names of the people included in the attributions of Mr. the Gd Mal of the Palace, their entry into the service of His Majesty, the information that one could have on their account and transfers.
                    The recordings will be signed by Mr. the Gd Mal of the palace and in his absence by the 1st prefect.
                    [Art.] 8: The salaries and wages will be paid every month, on signed statements, fixed by the Gd Mal of the palace or by the 1st prefect and ordered by the Intendant Gal who will be able to pass [illegible]s if he judges it appropriate42.
                    42 The word has been partially scratched. It should no doubt be understood that the Intendant General could, in the event of non-conformity of the accounting documents, return them to the original service, have it checked and recalculated and make corrections to them.

                    [Art.] 9: It is forbidden to record, sign or approve any expenditure, unless it is carefully checked. It is also forbidden to approve anything, no extraordinary [expense], unless it was made for the service of H.M.
                    [Art.] 10: The service prefect, the controlling butler, the butlers, will be present at the reception of supplies or consumer items supplied for the House of H.M. They will check if these items are of good quality and according to the quantity fixed or granted.
                    [Art.] 11: The chef de l'office will send one or more people from the office to seek water for the service of L.L.M.M. [He] will place it himself on the tables of L.L.M.M. as well as the bread. The sommelier himself will bring the wines to be served to them.
                    [Art.] 12: Bakers, butchers, wine merchants and providers will answer for their boys. They cannot name any unless they are known. It will be reported. They can only change them after notifying it.
                    [Art.] 13: It is forbidden for any person of the House to receive any presents or gratuities of any kind whatsoever that they may be [from] merchants of the House, under penalty of being banned from their place.
                    [Art.] 14: At meal times of L.L.M.M., the prefect will take their orders and he will send a butler to seek the service of the kitchen and that of the office, they will be brought in order and preceded by the butler that will have to dress them.
                    The prefect will then notify L.L.M.M., he will precede them to drive them to the place where the cover will be set, he will arrange the invited guests if there is one and will ensure that all the service is well done. After the meal, he will also precede L.L.M.M. and drive them back to their apartments.
                    [Art.] 15: The number of tables that must be served in the House, the time at which they must be served and the menu of each, with the number of people who must eat there will be regulated by Mr. the Gd Mal of the palace. Nothing will be served out of the ordinary and outside of meals, unless it is approved by the service prefect43.
                    43 In reality, it was the service prefect of the palace who elaborated the menus and oversaw the preparation of meals. According to Masson, the dishes offered by Bausset, prefect of the palace who was most often in service under the Empire, sometimes lacked subtlety (Frédéric Masson, Napoléon chez lui. La journée de l’Empereur aux Tuileries, Paris, Ollendorff, 1894, p. 232).

                    Art.] 16: It is forbidden to service people at L.L.M.M. to serve no person except by the order of Mr. the Gd Mal of the Palace or the 1st Prefect; and to chefs and people of the kitchen to accommodate food for money to anyone.
                    [Art.] 17: The service prefect [and] the controlling butler will have to go often to visit the fourrières (attics or buildings where provisions are stored) and make sure that the wood is of good quality. The quantities to be supplied for the service of L.L.M.M., that of la Bouche and that of the persons who are entitled to receive it will be settled and fixed, the chef de fourrières will draw receipts of all that he will supply.
                    [Art.] 18: The chef de lingerie will also draw a receipt from the people to whom he will deliver the linen, either for the service of L.L.M.M., or for that of the kitchen or particular service. A regulation will determine who should receive laundry, what species and how long it should last.
                    [Art.] 19: The chef de l’éclairage (lighting chief) will take the number of candles, chandelles (tallow candles) or oil he needs daily at the office. Its people will place them themselves in the apartments of L.L.M.M. [They] will be replaced every day by new ones and replaced in the other rooms of the House, so that they are entirely consumed.
                    [Art.] 20: The sommelier, the chefs de lingerie and of the fourrière must have a register on which they write down all the incomes and consumptions which will be done in their stores, so as to be able to give every day a situation report writes of what is entrusted to them.
                    [Art.] 21: The controlling butler will jointly take care with the argentier (silverware chief)of all the tableware and silverware at the bottom of the inventory to be made by the Intendant Gal of the House. This inventory will be detailed and will contain the dimensions, weight and number of each piece, it will be passed by the Intendant General one [state] as much per marc (unit of measurement used before the metric reform to weigh precious metals) [of silver] [and] per year. Every day the chef de l'argenterie has to bring it in, clean and count it.
                    [Art.] 22: The Gd Mal will have every three months an exact check of all the tableware, silverware and linen in the presence of the prefects and [of the] controlling butler. After this verification, if any part is missing, it will be replaced at the expense of Her Majesty or of the people through whose fault it was lost.
                    [Art.] 23: In the event that there is in the course of the year some part of tableware, silverware or linen are lost or misplaced, the chef in charge will hasten to notify the service prefect, so that he can give him a certificate and he can research.
                    [Art.] 24: The supplies or objects of ordinary consumption for the service of L.L.M.M. must be of the first quality. The prices will be fixed for the whole year, they will be detailed by the prefects [and] the controlling butlers, the butlers, and the suppliers or merchants in the presence of the prefects, of the Intendant Gal of the House or of the person he will propose, and he will fix them. Rare items, foreign wines and liquors will be purchased by the orders of the prefects, these orders will be reported in support of payment orders. Suppliers or merchants will supply them only on the vouchers of the controlling butler, approved by the prefect and released by the stakeholders. They will need to bring a voucher to support their payment statements.
                    [Art.] 25: A specific regulation will fix the duration of the dressings, their qualities and the people who must receive them. Intendant Gal of the House fixes the price, the tailors, the suppliers by a voucher from the governor of housing or from the prefects.
                    [Art.] 26: Intendant Gal of the House will make sure that the supplies for the service of the House of L.L.M.M. be paid exactly every month and according to what will have been due and fixed. Suppliers and merchants will be warned that no claims for services or supplies will be made in the months preceding the last one.
                    [Art.] 27: The first footmen will regulate daily the service of the valets de pied feutiers, footmen and coureurs (runners) and they will ensure that they do it exactly.
                    [Art.] 28: The sanctions will be the fine, the ban on the place or the prison depending on the case. The fine cannot overstep a day of wage, nor be less than half. A mass of all modifications will be made, this mass will remain in the hands of one of the butlers. It will be used to provide relief to the wives and children of former servants. The punishments will be settled and imposed by the prefect of the palace.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      THE REGULATIONS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE GRAND MARSHAL OF THE PALACE (1812)
                      CHAPTER 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS
                      The attributions and functions of the Grand Marshal of the Palace, of the governors and prefects of the palace and of the marshals of the lodgings are determined by His Majesty's decrees and the regulations which he approved for the etiquette and for his palaces44.
                      44 The one concerning the Grand Marshal is found in Louis-Philippe de Ségur, Étiquette du palais impérial, Paris, Imprimerie impériale, 1806, p. 10 à 23.

                      The service designation of the Grand Marshal of the Palace is understood to mean the officers and employees who make up its personnel and are directly under its orders and all the objects of the material which depend on it.

                      Article 1: staff
                      The governors, prefects of the palace and marshals of the lodgings are officers of the House and take an oath in the hands of the Emperor, their salaries are fixed by the budget and the organization of the House. They are not entitled to claim in addition to any indemnity or benefit resulting from the functions and service with which they are responsible and the use of things entrusted to them is prohibited, except for the service of L.L.M.M. or to carry out the missions for which they would be responsible.

                      Apart from these officers, there are:
                      __ Deputy governors and adjutants for the various palaces;
                      __ A secretary general of the palaces;
                      __ A quartermaster of the palace;
                      __ A Chief Butler-controller;
                      __ Four deputy controllers;
                      __ A curator of silverware;
                      __ A butler to the Emperor and a butler to the Empress;
                      __ A butler of the Children of France;
                      __ Four ordinary butlers;
                      __ A chef tranchant and tranchants (responsible for cutting the pieces of meat );
                      __ Couvreurs de table (responsible for setting the tables) ;
                      __ A chef, a second chef, a chef des garde-manger (chief of pantries), assistants and other employees and boys;
                      __ A chief of cellar , assistant and boys;
                      __ A chef de lingerie (chief of household linen), linen maids and workers.
                      __ A chief of porcelain, assistant and boys;
                      __ A chief of lighting and lighters;
                      __ A chef des fourriers, feutiers (responsible for lighting and maintaining fires) and handymen;
                      __ A First footman, apartment doormen, couvreurs, frotteurs (floor polishers) and footmen;
                      __ Concierges from different palaces, concierges from stables, assistant concierges, gardes des bouches, apartment boys, linen-maids, doormen, frotteurs, sweepers and wardrobe-men;
                      __ Watchmen, park wardens for the outside police of the palaces, parks and gardens.

                      Deputy governors and adjutants are appointed by decree of H.M.

                      The Secretary General, the Palace Quartermaster, the Chief Controlling Butler and the Fourriers are appointed by H.M. on the proposal made by the Grand Marshal and approved by Him.

                      The Grand Marshal appoints to all other jobs with the authorization of H.M.

                      All the employees appointed by the Grand Marshal are certified by him and take the oath in his hands or that of a duty officer who signs the oath.

                      The deputy governors and adjutants, the secretary general, the quartermaster, the chief butler controller and the fourriers have their appointments as certificates and they take the oath in the hands of the Grand Marshal.

                      Oath form:
                      "I swear to serve SM with fidelity and devotion, to fulfill the duties of my place with zeal and discretion, to obey the people under whose orders I am placed, to warn them on the spot of what I will learn that was necessary for the service of SM and not to receive any gift or gratuity without having been authorized to do so ”.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Brevet model issued to service employees:
                        [Header] House of From (here are shown the arms of H.M.) the Emperor and King
                        the Emperor and King
                        We, Géraud, Christophe, Michel, Duroc, Duke of Frioul, Grand Marshal of the Palace,
                        Major General, Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of the
                        Iron Crown, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Leopold of Austria, Knight of great orders
                        of the black Eagle and the red Eagle of Prussia, Grand Cross of the order of the green
                        Detail of services in Crown of Saxony, of the Golden Eagle of Württemberg, of St. Leopold of Herzburg,
                        the House of H. M. of the Fidelity of Baden-Baden. On the advantageous reports which have been made
                        to us of morality, loyalty, ability and integrity of …........; named him, with permission
                        of His Majesty, to serve as …....; to perform the functions under our authority after
                        to have taken the oath of fidelity to H.M. the Emperor and King, and to enjoy the wages,
                        emoluments and prerogatives attached to this place
                        (Here is affixed the cold imprint of arms Given to …... The Grand Mal of the palace.
                        of the Grand Mal of the palace) By his excellence, the Secretary General
                        N[ot]a: the brevet is in parchment.
                        Brevets for palace employees are sent to governors or officers who represent them, to be given to these employees.

                        Employees who are promoted to other jobs in the service receive certificates for their new duties, without the need to take a new oath.

                        Brevets are withdrawn from employees who are dismissed from the service of L.L.M.M for misconduct.

                        All the employees designated on the other parts have salaries or wages fixed by the organization and the budget of the House, on which they are made a deduction of two cents per franc to form the retirement pension fund to which they have right, in accordance with the decrees of H.M. which fix all that relates to the quota of these pensions and the mode to be followed to obtain them45.
                        45 According to the decree of June 14, 1810, coupled with a regulation of the Grand Marshal of November 28, 1811, the employees could hope to obtain a retirement pension after 25 years of effective service, the pension being fixed at half the wages affected during the last three years of the employee's activity. See : Bib. Thiers, ms. Masson 103, registre d’ordre des Tuileries, p. 29.

                        Regardless of the salary or wages fixed, the deputy governors and adjutants have the right to be housed in the palaces or their dependencies.

                        The secretary general, the quartermaster and the chief butler-controller are entitled to have an accommodation or an allowance which represents it, and to be heated and lighted.

                        Palace fourriers have the right to housing, heating, lighting, clothing, and to be fed when on duty.

                        The deputy controllers, the silverware curator, the butlers and the tranchants, all the employees of the kitchen, office, cellar, silverware, porcelain and the chief of the linen are entitled to food either in kind or in money, housing, heating and lighting.

                        The couvreurs de table, linen-maids, lighting workers, chef de fourrière, frotteurs, handymen, footmen, apartment doormen and runners are entitled to housing, heating and lighting.

                        The winery boys, helpers and silverware boys, lighters, footmen, apartment doormen, coureurs, frotteurs and handymen of the house are dressed in the livery of H.M.

                        Palace concierges, stable concierges, concierge helpers, guards of the bouches, apartment boys, linen-maids, doormen, frotteurs, sweepers, wardrobe men and watchmen are entitled to housing, heating and lighting.

                        The apartment boys, doormen, frotteurs, sweepers and wardrobe men are dressed in the livery of H.M.

                        The concierge of the palace in which L.L.M.M. or Les Enfants de France (Children of France) reside, is entitled to a food allowance.

                        Allowances for accommodation, clothing, food, travel, heating, lighting, whether provided in kind or given in cash, are fixed by special rates.

                        Employees of the service are not entitled to claim any other emoluments or compensation other than what is fixed for each of them. Nor can they claim any profit, good income or right of use, unless this has been specially authorized by the Grand Marshal.

                        It is not allowed for the different employees to use for their personal use the things which are entrusted to them or which they have at their disposal for the service.

                        The employees who have salaries, the palace concierges, butlers and other heads of service who are housed in the palaces or their dependencies and who by the emoluments which they enjoy, are in the case of having servants are not included in the cases of exception granted by the law for the impositions: they must pay their personal and movable contributions, like all the citizens of the Empire.

                        Employees must do their service personally; they are prohibited from being replaced or absent without permission. They are also forbidden to do any service foreign to that of L.L.M.M. or the Palace to which they are attached.

                        Employees who have uniforms should always wear them while on duty.

                        Livery people should usually be dressed in it.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Art. 2: Materiel
                          The material which is part of the attributions of the Grand Marshal of the Palace consists of all the supplies relating to the service of the Bouche, whether for the kitchen, the pantry or the cellar; of the lighting and heating, linen for table service, apartments, kitchens, office and cellar, its maintenance and laundering.

                          The material also includes all the supplies of silverware, porcelain, glassware and earthenware for serving tables, those of cookware and all office and cellar utensils, and finally the maintenance and conservation of all these objects, whether they are found in the palaces of the capital or surrounding, or in those of the various general governments of the Empire.

                          The objects of the material are inventoried and classified according to their nature and the service for which they are intended. Those assigned for the service of L.L.M.M. are exclusively reserved for this destination.

                          Clothing and livery supplies for eligible service workers are part of the material.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Art. 3: Tables
                            L.L.M.M.'s tables, either in palaces, on hunts or in extraordinary circumstances, are served according to orders and etiquette46. A special order regulates the ceremonial of the large cover.
                            46 Louis-François-Joseph de Bausset, Mémoires anecdotiques sur l’intérieur du Palais et sur quelques évènements de l’Empire depuis 1805 jusqu’au 1er mai 1814 pour servir à l’histoire de Napoléon, Paris, Baudouin frères, 1827-1829, t. 1, p. 9 : "In Fontainebleau, Rambouillet or Compiègne, when Napoleon went hunting, there was always a tent erected in the forest, for lunch to which all the people of the trip were invited"

                            The Grand Marshal of the Palace holds a table to do the honors of the Palace.

                            The dame d'honneur (maid of honor) keeps a table to do the honors of the Empress’s Maison (House).

                            It is usually served a table at which the Grand Officers of the Crown, officers and ladies on duty or, when traveling, the persons who sit on it, may be seated. A Grand Officer of the Crown or the Colonel General on duty, and, in their absence, the First Prefect or the aide-de-camp on duty do the honors. You must have the rank of officer of the Maison or Colonel in the army or be on the travel list to be able to take a seat at this table47.
                            47 Baron Fain kept a register of those invited to the Emperor's short and long journeys: between twenty and forty guests could sit around the table (Arch. nat., AFIV 436* : Register titled « Journal des séjours de l’Empereur Napoléon, par le baron Fain », 1806-1814).

                            In the small voyages which are made in the imperial palaces or in the voyages which are carried out in the Empire, these tables meet in only one of which the Grand Marshal or the Colonel General on duty do the honors together with the dame d’honneur. The people invited to the trip eat at this table.

                            A table is served for the Gouvernante (Governess) of the Children of France and another for the officers and ladies of their service. Apart from these tables, one is used for the orderly officers, the guard officers, the service pages when they are not eating at their hotel, and the fourriers.

                            In short trips to imperial palaces and in trips to the Empire and in campaign, the officiers de santé (medical officers) eat at this table48.
                            48 The question of medical officers had been raised by Duroc and Daru in 1807. The surgeon and the doctor on duty, in service at the palace and supposed to follow the Imperial hunts in the event of accidents, had asked to be fed and paid for their travel expenses. See : Arch. nat., O2 6, dossier 2, pièce 130, letter from Duroc to Daru, Fontainebleau, September 19, 1807.

                            A table is served for the secretaries of the cabinet of H.M. to which no one can be admitted if he is not part of this service.

                            No special table is served, and nothing is brought in the lodgings or rooms, either from the kitchens, pantries, cellar, silverware or linen49, without the authorization of the Grand Marshal or the Prefect of the palace.
                            49 Napoleon's distrust of linen thieves was notably mentioned in P. Branda, Napoléon et ses hommes…, p. 157.

                            It can be brought in service lounges, refreshments to officers and ladies on duty.

                            On days when the diplomatic corps is admitted to the Emperor's audience, it is served before, a light meal or lunch consisting of coffee, liquors, sweets and refreshments, and the Grand Marshal keeps them for dinner.

                            The same is true for ambassadors on the days they are allowed to present their credentials. The Grand Marshal keeps at dinner the deputation of the Legislative Body which comes to present the address to H.M. after the opening of the session, he invites to this dinner the princes Grand dignitaries, the Ministers, the Grand officers of the Crown, the Presidents of the Senate and of the Sections of the Council of State50.
                            50 The situation contrasts with the era of the Consulate, where Bonaparte himself invited the Diplomatic Corps and the members of the Legislative Body to dinner twice a month.

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                              Art. 4: Housing given in the imperial palaces and their dependencies
                              No one is entitled to occupy accommodation or an apartment in the imperial palaces or their dependencies except with the permission of H.M. which is transmitted to the governors, deputy governors, adjutants or concierges by the Grand Marshal of the palace.

                              Persons occupying accommodation in imperial palaces or their dependencies are responsible for the damage which they may commit, or which would be committed by persons belonging to them51, either to buildings or to the furniture of the Crown. These people are subject to all police measures established for the palace in which they live.
                              51 Members of the Court had their own servants, but the employees of the Emperor's Maison also had their own staff, who lived in the castle with them. This was particularly the case for the concierges of Compiegne and Fontainebleau.

                              Persons having accommodation or an apartment in the imperial palaces may not have any work done there which changes or alters the distribution thereof, unless they have obtained the approval of the Grand Marshal and the Intendant of buildings, and while these works are at their own expense, they can only be done under the direction of the architect of H.M. attached to the palace. These same people may have furniture belonging to them or increase that of the Crown that would have been made available to them for their use52. These pieces of furniture or increases in furniture are not included in the concierges' inventories so that owners can remove them when they want.
                              52 From 1811, Napoleon ordered that the lodgings of all the employees of the Maison should not be systematically furnished any more, and that the officers would furnish furniture themselves.

                              The lodgings or apartments in the different palaces are classified according to the rank of the people who can occupy them, that is to say that independently of the apartments of L.L.M.M. and of those which have fixed destinations for the members of the imperial family, there are apartments of Princes or Great dignitaries, apartments of ministers or Grand officers, apartments of ladies, of officers of the Maison, of orderly officers, of secretaries, of medical officers and others of the same rank; lastly, living quarters for the butlers, ushers, valets, maids, heads of service, etc., and commons for footmen and livery53. In general, the rank to establish the accommodation classes can be adjusted to that determined to eat at the different tables.
                              53 The apartments and furniture were divided into classes: the first class corresponded to the furniture that could be placed in the apartments of the imperial family or foreign princes. The second to those of the apartments of the Grand Officers, the third class to the Ministers and finery ladies, the chamberlains and civil officers of the Court to the fourth class, the secretaries to the fifth class, the ushers, chamber valets and butlers in sixth class, piqueurs (servant with a lantern preceding the carriages) and coachmen in seventh class, grooms and stable boys in eighth class. See : Aleth Tisseau des Escotais, Le Garde-meuble sous la Révolution et l’Empire (1792-1815). Une institution royale en contexte républicain puis impérial, thesis for the diploma of paleographer archivist directed by the Professeur Jean-Michel Leniaud, Paris, École nationale des chartes, 2013, t. 1, p. 204.

                              The marshals of the lodgings and the fourriers take care to follow this classification in the designation of the lodgings; no one has the right to claim accommodation of the upper class to that to which they belong; no one has the right either to take the accommodation marked or designated for another, nor to remove from other apartments, objects of furniture to increase his own.

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