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THE FLAG IS A LIE !!!

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  • Keep in mind that once the Union took control of an area they immediately started raising troops. Many men from Kentucky and Missouri found themselves conscripted to fight with the Yankees. A number of men also volunteered in the first year to fight for the Confederacy, went home and then enlisted or were drafted into the Union Army.

    In Louisiana, if any such deserters/turncoats were captured they would be shot or hung. A number of New Orleans residents found themselves in this predicament. General Butler even opened up the state penitentiary in Baton Rouge and enrolled the inmates in his New England Regiments.

    Pruitt
    Pruitt, you are truly an expert! Kelt06

    Have you been struck by the jawbone of an ASS lately?

    by Khepesh "This is the logic of Pruitt"

    Comment


    • I agree with guthrieba and Pruitt. The CSA and USA both claimed Kentucky and Missouri. The Confederates contested posession of Kentucky as late as October, 1862, when the Battle of Perryville was fought.
      "It is a fine fox chase, my boys"

      "It is well that war is so terrible-we would grow too fond of it"

      Comment


      • Originally posted by LeanotLee View Post
        The CSA consisted of 11 "SECEDED" States.
        If you can verify a 12th or 13th have at it.
        YOU CANT !!!!

        John
        13 Stars because 13 States have passed and adopted an Ordinance of Secession
        South Carolina 20 Dec 1860
        Mississippi 9 Jan 1861
        Florida 10 Jan 1861
        Alabama 11 Jan 1861
        Georgia 19 Jan 1861
        Louisiana 26 Jan 1861
        Texas 1 Feb 1861
        Virginia 17 Apr 1861
        Tennessee 6 May 1861
        Arkansas 6 May 1861
        North Carolina 20 May 1861
        Missouri 31 Oct 1861
        Kentucky 20 Nov 1861

        Comment


        • Missouri



          An act declaring the political ties heretofore existing between the State of Missouri and the United States of America dissolved.



          Whereas the Government of the United States, in the possession and under the control of a sectional party, has wantonly violated the compact originally made between said Government and the State of Missouri, by invading with hostile armies the soil of the State, attacking and making prisoners the militia while legally assembled under the State laws, forcibly occupying the State capitol, and attempting through the instrumentality of domestic traitors to usurp the State government, seizing and destroying private property, and murdering with fiendish malignity peaceable citizens, men, women, and children, together with other acts of atrocity, indicating a deep-settled hostility toward the people of Missouri and their institutions; and



          Whereas the present Administration of the Government of the United States has utterly ignored the Constitution, subverted the Government as constructed and intended by its makers, and established a despotic and arbitrary power instead thereof: Now, therefore,



          Be it enacted by the general assembly of the State of Missouri, That all political ties of every character new existing between the Government of the United States of America and the people and government of the State of Missouri are hereby dissolved, and the State of Missouri, resuming the sovereignty granted by compact to the said United States upon admission of said State into the Federal Union, does again take its place as a free and independent republic amongst the nations of the earth.



          This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage.



          Approved by the Missouri Legislature on October 31, 1861.

          Comment


          • Kentucky



            Whereas, the Federal Constitution, which created the Government of the United States, was declared by the framers thereof to be the supreme law of the land, and was intended to limit and did expressly limit the powers of said Government to certain general specified purposes, and did expressly reserve to the States and people all other powers whatever, and the President and Congress have treated this supreme law of the Union with contempt and usurped to themselves the power to interfere with the rights and liberties of the States and the people against the expressed provisions of the Constitution, and have thus substituted for the highest forms of national liberty and constitutional government a central despotism founded upon the ignorant prejudices of the masses of Northern society, and instead of giving protection with the Constitution to the people of fifteen States of this Union have turned loose upon them the unrestrained and raging passions of mobs and fanatics, and because we now seek to hold our liberties, our property, our homes, and our families under the protection of the reserved powers of the States, have blockaded our ports, invaded our soil, and waged war upon our people for the purpose of subjugating us to their will; and



            Whereas, our honor and our duty to posterity demand that we shall not relinquish our own liberty and shall not abandon the right of our descendants and the world to the inestimable blessings of constitutional government: Therefore,



            Be it ordained, That we do hereby forever sever our connection with the Government of the United States, and in the name of the people we do hereby declare Kentucky to be a free and independent State, clothed with all power to fix her own destiny and to secure her own rights and liberties.



            And whereas, the majority of the Legislature of Kentucky have violated their most solemn pledges made before the election, and deceived and betrayed the people; have abandoned the position of neutrality assumed by themselves and the people, and invited into the State the organized armies of Lincoln; have abdicated the Government in favor of a military despotism which they have placed around themselves, but cannot control, and have abandoned the duty of shielding the citizen with their protection; have thrown upon our people and the State the horrors and ravages of war, instead of attempting to preserve the peace, and have voted men and money for the war waged by the North for the destruction of our constitutional rights; have violated the expressed words of the constitution by borrowing five millions of money for the support of the war without a vote of the people; have permitted the arrest and imprisonment of our citizens, and transferred the constitutional prerogatives of the Executive to a military commission of partisans; have seen the writ of habeas corpus suspended without an effort for its preservation, and permitted our people to be driven in exile from their homes; have subjected our property to confiscation and our persons to confinement in the penitentiary as felons, because we may choose to take part in a cause for civil liberty and constitutional government against a sectional majority waging war against the people and institutions of fifteen independent States of the old Federal Union, and have done all these things deliberately against the warnings and vetoes of the Governor and the solemn remonstrance's of the minority in the Senate and House of Representatives: Therefore,



            Be it further ordained, That the unconstitutional edicts of a factious majority of a Legislature thus false to their pledges, their honor, and their interests are not law, and that such a government is unworthy of the support of a brave and free people, and that we do therefore declare that the people are thereby absolved from all allegiance to said government, and that they have a right to establish any government which to them may seem best adapted to the preservation of their rights and liberties.





            Adopted 20 Nov 1861, by a Convention of the People of Kentucky.

            Comment


            • Originally posted by LeanotLee View Post
              It carries 13 stars...Yet anyone with minimal Civil War knowledge knows there were only 11 states that seceded from The Union.
              ..
              I have seen examples of Confederate flags with only 11 stars.


              Comment


              • Originally posted by daddut roger View Post
                Kentucky



                Whereas, the Federal Constitution, which created the Government of the United States, was declared by the framers thereof to be the supreme law of the land, and was intended to limit and did expressly limit the powers of said Government to certain general specified purposes, and did expressly reserve to the States and people all other powers whatever, and the President and Congress have treated this supreme law of the Union with contempt and usurped to themselves the power to interfere with the rights and liberties of the States and the people against the expressed provisions of the Constitution, and have thus substituted for the highest forms of national liberty and constitutional government a central despotism founded upon the ignorant prejudices of the masses of Northern society, and instead of giving protection with the Constitution to the people of fifteen States of this Union have turned loose upon them the unrestrained and raging passions of mobs and fanatics, and because we now seek to hold our liberties, our property, our homes, and our families under the protection of the reserved powers of the States, have blockaded our ports, invaded our soil, and waged war upon our people for the purpose of subjugating us to their will; and



                Whereas, our honor and our duty to posterity demand that we shall not relinquish our own liberty and shall not abandon the right of our descendants and the world to the inestimable blessings of constitutional government: Therefore,



                Be it ordained, That we do hereby forever sever our connection with the Government of the United States, and in the name of the people we do hereby declare Kentucky to be a free and independent State, clothed with all power to fix her own destiny and to secure her own rights and liberties.



                And whereas, the majority of the Legislature of Kentucky have violated their most solemn pledges made before the election, and deceived and betrayed the people; have abandoned the position of neutrality assumed by themselves and the people, and invited into the State the organized armies of Lincoln; have abdicated the Government in favor of a military despotism which they have placed around themselves, but cannot control, and have abandoned the duty of shielding the citizen with their protection; have thrown upon our people and the State the horrors and ravages of war, instead of attempting to preserve the peace, and have voted men and money for the war waged by the North for the destruction of our constitutional rights; have violated the expressed words of the constitution by borrowing five millions of money for the support of the war without a vote of the people; have permitted the arrest and imprisonment of our citizens, and transferred the constitutional prerogatives of the Executive to a military commission of partisans; have seen the writ of habeas corpus suspended without an effort for its preservation, and permitted our people to be driven in exile from their homes; have subjected our property to confiscation and our persons to confinement in the penitentiary as felons, because we may choose to take part in a cause for civil liberty and constitutional government against a sectional majority waging war against the people and institutions of fifteen independent States of the old Federal Union, and have done all these things deliberately against the warnings and vetoes of the Governor and the solemn remonstrance's of the minority in the Senate and House of Representatives: Therefore,



                Be it further ordained, That the unconstitutional edicts of a factious majority of a Legislature thus false to their pledges, their honor, and their interests are not law, and that such a government is unworthy of the support of a brave and free people, and that we do therefore declare that the people are thereby absolved from all allegiance to said government, and that they have a right to establish any government which to them may seem best adapted to the preservation of their rights and liberties.





                Adopted 20 Nov 1861, by a Convention of the People of Kentucky.
                So what? This was a vote of the state legislature only. No popular vote was risked, and I would venture that the majority of the folks with the money and time to dabble in politics at that time were slave owners.

                Two salient facts make this piece of paper at best a straw man, at worst a joke. First, Kentucky never seceded, hence could never have been a star in the rebel flag. Second, the fact that Union enlistments outnumber their rebel counterpart by at least 2:1 in Kentucky indicate that an actual secession would have been very unpopular with the people, and most likely impossible to pull off.

                In Missouri, another state you chose to publish an ordinance from, also never seceded and no popular vote was taken in Missouri either. Union enlistments there outnumbered rebel by 3:1. Real rebel strongholds, weren't they?


                Regards,
                Dennis
                If stupid was a criminal offense Sea Lion believers would be doing life.

                Shouting out to Half Pint for bringing back the big mugs!

                Comment


                • During the months of October and November 1861, a Confederate Provisional Government of Kentucky was organized. A preliminary meeting was held at Russellville on October 29th with thirty-two Kentucky counties represented. A Sovereign Convention was called by this body to meet at Russellville on the 18th of November. The Convention met as scheduled with two hundred in attendance from sixty-five Kentucky counties. Both a Declaration of Independence and an Ordinance of Secession were passed. George W. Johnson of Scott County was elected Governor, and Bowling Green was chosen as the provisional capital of the state.
                  On December 10, 1861 the Confederate Congress at Richmond, Virginia, with the backing of President Davis, admitted Kentucky as the twelfth Confederate State. Kentucky was permitted two Senators and twelve Congressmen in the Confederate Congress.

                  DÉLÉGUÉS AU PREMIER CONGRÈS CONFÉDÉRÉ
                  1ère Session 18 Février 1862 – 21 Avril 1862 à Richmond, Virginie
                  2ème Session 18 Août 1862 – 13 Octobre 1862 à Richmond, Virginie
                  3ème Session 12 Janvier 1863 – 1 Mai 1863 à Richmond, Virginie
                  4ème Session 7 Décembre 1863 – 17 Février 1864 à Richmond, Virginie

                  Sénateurs :
                  →Henry Cornelius BURNETT
                  →William Emmet SIMMS
                  Députés :
                  →Willis Benson MACHEN
                  →John Watkins CROCKETT Jr
                  →Henry English READE
                  →George Washington EWING (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                  →James CHRISMAN
                  → Theodore Legrand BURNETT (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                  →Horatio Washington BRUCE
                  →George Baird HODGE (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                  →Eli Metcalfe BRUCE
                  →James Williams MOORE
                  →Robert Jefferson BRECKINRIDGE Jr
                  →John Milton ELLIOTT (membre du Congrès Provisoire)


                  DÉLÉGUÉS AU SECOND CONGRÈS CONFÉDÉRÉ
                  1ère Session 2 Mai 18 1864 – 14 Juin 1864 à Richmond, Virginie
                  2ème Session 7 Novembre 1864 – 18 Mars 1865 à Richmond, Virginie

                  Sénateurs :
                  →Henry Cornelius BURNETT (réélu)
                  →William Emmet SIMMS (réélu)
                  Députés :
                  →Willis Benson MACHEN (réélu)
                  →George Washington TRIPLETT
                  →Henry English READ (réélu)
                  →George Washington EWING
                  →James CHRISMAN (réélu)
                  →Theodore Legrand BURNETT (réélu)
                  →Horatio Washington BRUCE (réélu)
                  →Humphrey MARSHALL
                  →Eli Metcalfe BRUCE (réélu)
                  →James William MOORE (réélu)
                  →Benjamin Franklin BRADLEY
                  →John Milton ELLIOTT (réélu)

                  Comment


                  • Jackson was sworn in as Missouri’s 15th governor on January 3, 1861. A state convention was called in 1861 to decide whether Missouri would secede or remain in the Union. The assembly first met in Jefferson City on February 28, 1861. Jackson aligned himself with the pro-Southern majority and believed that the state convention would vote for secession. Instead, they vacated the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, and the assembly; appointed Hamilton Rowan Gamble as the provisional governor; and called for a statewide election in November.
                    Ignoring the convention order, Jackson declared Missouri a free republic and dissolved all ties with the Union on August 5, 1861. He unsuccessfully summoned the old assembly to meet in November (less than a quorum of either house responded) but they still passed a formal ordinance of secession and appointed senators and representatives to the Confederacy. On November 28, 1861, the Confederate States of America admitted Missouri. Jackson removed with the southern sympathizing members of the state government to southern Arkansas after the Battle of Pea Ridge.
                    DÉLÉGUÉS AU PREMIER CONGRÈS CONFÉDÉRÉ
                    1ère Session 18 Février 1862 – 21 Avril 1862 à Richmond, Virginie
                    2ème Session 18 Août 1862 – 13 Octobre 1862 à Richmond, Virginie
                    3ème Session 12 Janvier 1863 – 1 Mai 1863 à Richmond, Virginie
                    4ème Session 7 Décembre 1863 – 17 Février 1864 à Richmond, Virginie
                    Sénateurs :
                    →John Bullock CLARK Sr. (Membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →Robert Ludwell Yates PEYTON (membre du Congrès Provisoire ; décède le 3 Septembre 1863)
                    Waldo Porter JOHNSON (récupère le siège le 23 Décembre – Élu pour combler cette vacance)
                    Députés :
                    →William Mordecai COOKE Sr. (Membre du Congrès Provisoire ; décède le 3 Septembre 1863)
                    →Thomas Alexander HARRIS (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →Caspar Wistar BELL (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →Aaron H. CONROW (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →George Graham VEST (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →Thomas W. FREEMAN (membre du Congrès Provisoire)
                    →John HYER ne siégera pas pour son district au cours de cette session
                    DÉLÉGUÉS AU SECOND CONGRÈS CONFÉDÉRÉ
                    1ère Session 2 Mai 18 1864 – 14 Juin 1864 à Richmond, Virginie
                    2ème Session 7 Novembre 1864 – 18 Mars 1865 à Richmond, Virginie
                    Sénateurs :
                    →Waldo Porter JOHNSON (réélu)
                    →la Législature ne peut pas se réunir pour élire un second Sénateur
                    George Graham VEST (récupère le siège le 12 Janvier 1865 – Élu pour combler cette vacance)
                    Députés :
                    →Thomas Lowndes SNEAD
                    →Nimrod Lindsay NORTON
                    →John Bullock CLARK Sr. (Sénateur lors du 1er Congrès)
                    →Aaron H. CONROW (réélu)
                    →George Graham VEST (réélu ; démissionne pour devenir Sénateur)
                    →Peter Singleton WILKES
                    →Robert Anthony HATCHER


                    Comment


                    • First national confederate flag "Stars and Bars"
                      with 7 stars(4 Mar 1861 - 21 May 1861)
                      with 9 stars (21 May 1861 - 2 Jul 1861)
                      with 11 stars (2 Jul 1861 - 28 Nov 1861)
                      with 13 stars (28 Nov 1861 - 1 May 1863)

                      Second national confederate flag 'Stainless Banner"
                      (1 May 1863 - 4 Mar 1865)
                      The new design was specified by the Confederate Congress to be a white field "with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be a square of two-thirds the width of the flag, having the ground red; thereupon a broad saltier [sic] of blue, bordered with white, and emblazoned with mullets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States."

                      Third National flag "The Blood Stained Banner"
                      (since 4 Mar 1865)
                      The Flag Act of 1865 describes the flag in the following language: "The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The width two-thirds of its length, with the union (now used as the battle flag) to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width of the field below it; to have the ground red and a broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States; the field to be white, except the outer half from the union to be a red bar extending the width of the flag."

                      The Battle Flag
                      Miles' flag, and all the flag designs up to that point, were rectangular ("oblong") in shape. General Johnston suggested making it square instead to conserve material. Johnston also specified the various sizes to be used by different types of military units(48 inches square for the infantry, 36 inches for the artillery, and 30 inches for the cavalry). Generals Beauregard and Johnston and Quartermaster General Cabell approved the design of the 12-star Confederate Battle Flag at the Ratcliffe home, which served briefly as Beauregard’s headquarters, near Fairfax Court House in September 1861. The 12th star represented Missouri. President Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. Hetty Cary and her sister and cousin made prototypes. One such 12-star flag resides in the collection of Richmond’s Museum of the Confederacy and the other is in Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans.Later, a 13th star was added for Kentucky.

                      Comment


                      • Originally posted by D1J1 View Post

                        So what? This was a vote of the state legislature only. No popular vote was risked, and I would venture that the majority of the folks with the money and time to dabble in politics at that time were slave owners.

                        Two salient facts make this piece of paper at best a straw man, at worst a joke. First, Kentucky never seceded, hence could never have been a star in the rebel flag. Second, the fact that Union enlistments outnumber their rebel counterpart by at least 2:1 in Kentucky indicate that an actual secession would have been very unpopular with the people, and most likely impossible to pull off.

                        In Missouri, another state you chose to publish an ordinance from, also never seceded and no popular vote was taken in Missouri either. Union enlistments there outnumbered rebel by 3:1. Real rebel strongholds, weren't they?


                        Regards,
                        Dennis

                        After Kentucky had officially shed its neutrality by the late summer, siding with the Confederacy in particular could have serious consequences. The newly pro-Union legislature passed through the so-called “Bloody Bill #36” on September 12, 1861. Anyone tempted to respond to Smith’s confederate recruitment poster, would have to weigh his decision with new law which stated:

                        That any citizen, or resident of this State, who shall, in this State, enlist, or agree to enlist, or take service, as soldier, officer, or otherwise, in the army of the so-called Confederate States, or who shall join or parade in any military company, with the intent to aid said Confederate States, or either of them, shall be guilty of felony, and, on conviction thereof, be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than one more than five years….

                        Some Kentuckians might have thought twice about enrolling in the face of prospective jail time and family hardships.

                        Confederate recruiters had hoped for 20,000 to 30,000 volunteers. Ultimately, only 2,500 Kentuckians responded to Confederate pleas to fight, as Smith announced, “for your principles, for your institutions, and FOR YOUR STATE.” Though their efforts were not exacerbated by the threats of a “Bloody Bill”, Union recruiters likewise had their share of difficulties. While they had hoped for 42,000 Kentucky enlistments, they ultimately tallied just 29,203.

                        At the end of the war, enlistments in Kentucky represent only 39% of the male population of legal age to fight, according to the 1860 census (the average for Confederation is 62% and for the Union 57%) The Kentucky people wanted above all, stay neutral. The distribution between North and South of the number of enrollments is 72% for the Union and 28% for the Confederation.

                        But when they are forced to fight, they do it first and foremost to maintain the State in the Union. When Lincoln makes his preliminary declaration of emancipation, the Kentuckians will react. In November 1862 and early 1863, the desertions will undergo a sudden increase. Kentucky ranks second highest in the Union States for the desertion rate (13.9% ... .1st Maryland with 15.6%). And at the end of their enlistment the Veterans will refuse to re-engage (only less than 11% will do so ... a very low rate)

                        Comment


                        • I would offer war that the term "enlistments" is a bit misleading. After the draft was passed, many men were called in. Some had already served as a volunteer when the war began. Many men were counted in the Southern states as "Union Service" after they were accepted into Lincoln's political system. Louisiana was accepted and drafted many Black and White men. The Union State Government and the Union Army conscripted the men. Not all these men were "volunteers".

                          Pruitt
                          Pruitt, you are truly an expert! Kelt06

                          Have you been struck by the jawbone of an ASS lately?

                          by Khepesh "This is the logic of Pruitt"

                          Comment


                          • Originally posted by Pruitt View Post
                            I would offer war that the term "enlistments" is a bit misleading. After the draft was passed, many men were called in. Some had already served as a volunteer when the war began. Many men were counted in the Southern states as "Union Service" after they were accepted into Lincoln's political system. Louisiana was accepted and drafted many Black and White men. The Union State Government and the Union Army conscripted the men. Not all these men were "volunteers".
                            both
                            Pruitt
                            The rebels began conscription in April 1862. The Union a year later. So, either we have a wash on that or southern "enlistments" are even more skewed to their side.

                            Be that as it may, it still stands that those numbers do show a majority of popular support for the Union. Neither state opened the vote to the people, and both Missouri and Kentucky maintained their delegations to the US Congress throughout the war. The belief that those two states actually were part of the Confederate states remains myth.

                            Regards,
                            Dennis
                            If stupid was a criminal offense Sea Lion believers would be doing life.

                            Shouting out to Half Pint for bringing back the big mugs!

                            Comment


                            • Did you check and see if Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee also had delegations in Washington after Lincoln accepted them back into the Union? Many of these states I mention had men conscripted into Union service after their states were overran. The Union also accepted men who had served the CSA as Volunteers before the Draft. Can you show me where I claim Kentucky and Missouri did join the Confederacy? Many families were divided over the issue of service. The Breckinridge family had generals in both armies for instance.

                              Did you say whether or not Kentucky and Missouri had delegations in Montgomery/Richmond?

                              Pruitt
                              Pruitt, you are truly an expert! Kelt06

                              Have you been struck by the jawbone of an ASS lately?

                              by Khepesh "This is the logic of Pruitt"

                              Comment


                              • Kentucky ... a Confederate State ... a myth ... not sure !!!!

                                On December 4, 1861, Mr. Davis transmitted the Governor Johnson's correspondence to the Hon. Howell Cobb, President of the Confederate Congress, with the following remarks:
                                "I have the honor herewith to transmit a communication from the provisional governor of Kentucky, informing me of the appointment of commissioners on the part of the State to treat with the Government of the Confederate States of America for the recognition of said State, and its admission into this Confederacy. Also, a communication from the president and members of the convention which declared the separation of Kentucky from the United States and adopted the provisional government as therein recited. Two of the three commissioners thus appointed presented their credentials and submitted a proposition to enter upon negotiation for the admission of the State of Kentucky into the Confederacy.
                                "Before entering upon such negotiation I have deemed it proper to lay the case before Congress, and ask its advice.
                                "That this proceeding for the admission of Kentucky into the Confederacy is wanting in the formality which characterized that of the States which seceded by the act of their organized government is manifest, indeed admitted, by terming it revolutionary. This imposes the necessity tor examining the evidence to establish the fact that the popular will is in favor of the admission of the State into the Confederacy. To this end I refer the Congress to the commissioners, who have presented to me many facts, which (if opportunity be afforded them) they will, no doubt, as freely communicate to the Congress.
                                "The conclusion to which I have arrived is, that there is enough of merit in the application to warrant a disregard of its irregularity ; that it is the people—that is to say the State—who seek to confederate with us; that, though embarrassed, they can not rightfully be controlled by a government which violates its obligations and usurps powers in derogation of the liberty
                                which it was instituted to preserve; and that, therefore, we may right fully recognize the provisional government oi Kentucky, and, under its auspices, admit the State into the Confederacy.
                                "In reaching this conclusion I have endeavored to divest myself of the sentiments which strongly attract me toward that State, and to regard considerations, military and political, subordinate to propriety and justice in the determination of the question. I now invite the early attention of Congress, that I may be guided by its advice in my action.
                                ' Jefferson Davis'

                                On the same day (December 4) Mr. Crawford, of Georgia submitted a resolution providing that Hon. Henry C. Burnett and Hon. William E. Simms, commissioners from the State of Kentucky to the Government of the Confederate States, be entitled to appear and communicate with the Congress on Monday next (December 9) at 1 o'clock, or at such other time as may be most agreeable to them, on the subject matter of their mission. This was agreed to, the commissioners appeared before the Congress and made their argument, and on December 10, 1861, on a resolution offered by Mr. Rhett, of South Carolina, which was passed unanimously, Kentucky was admitted to the Confederate States of America upon an equal footing with the other States of the Confederacy.

                                The delegates to the "sovereignty convention" at Russellville were mostly Confederate soldiers stationed at that time in General Albert Sidney Johnston's camp at Bowling: Green, which became the first capital of the provisional government of Kentucky.
                                The provisional government exercised for more than two months all the functions and authority of a regular State Government in so many of the counties of Southern Kentucky as lay within the Confederate lines. Under its auspices, taxes were collected and courts and elections were held in those counties. Within this territory (and assisted by the Kentucky troops in the Confederate camp at Bowling Green, representing every Congressional District in the State), an election of Congressmen was held, and gentlemen were elected members of the Provisional Congress of the Confederacy.

                                On February 1, 1862, General Johnston evacuated Bowling Green and retreated into Tennessee, the provisional government of Kentucky retreating with him; and at the battle of Shiloh, on April 6, 1862, tlie provisional governor, George W. Johnson, was killed while fighting as a private in the ranks of the 4th Kentucky Confederate Infantry, "Orphan Brigade." The Council elected Richard Hawes, of Bourbon County, to succeed him. During Gen. Bragg's occupancy of Kentuckyin the fall of 1862, Mr. Hawes, on October 4, was inaugurated as Governor in the State House, in Frankfort, and the other officers of the provisional government were duly installed in their offices. While Judge Hawes was delivering his inaugural address, the advance guard of Gen. Sill's Division of Federal troops entered the outskirts of the town, and the address was left unfinished, while the provisional government, with dignified haste, retired to Lexington. A few days later they retreated with Bragg's army to Tennessee; and for more than two years they remained over the border (instead of "over the water") like the exiled Stuarts, waiting with what hope and fortitude they could "for the King to come to his own again."

                                When the Confederate Provisional Congress was made "permanent," with a Senate added, the Council elected Henry C. Burnett and William E. Simms as Senators from Kentucky, and they served as such until the Confederacy fell. The Council also divided Kentucky into twelve Congressional districts, and a Congressman was elected from each of them by the Kentucky troops serving in the field, none of whom were in Kentucky at the time. Some of the Kentucky members of the Provisional Congress served in the two permanent Congresses.

                                The claim was steadfastly maintained in the South during the whole war that Kentucky was a Confederate State ; and that theory also had a large number of enthusiastic adherents in the State of Kentucky itself.
                                The episode of the provisional government of Kentucky is only another one of those strange and curious incidents with which the annals of Kentucky, from the beginning until now, are so replete as to make the history of the State read like a romance ; and it proves again that "truth is stranger than fiction."

                                Comment

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