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  • ​​​​​​​Nuclear weapons and Doctrine's of India and Pakistan and Jihadist

    Nuclear weapons and Doctrine's of India and Pakistan and Jihadist.

    India has never publicly released the size of its nuclear arsenal. Independent assessments approximate a stockpile between 130-140 nuclear warheads. However, the state has at least 600 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium, which is sufficient for 150-200 nuclear warheads. Traditionally, India’s nuclear arsenal focused on deterring Pakistan, but India’s nuclear posture may begin to take China into account. This may lead to a shift in India’s view regarding the role its arsenal plays against Pakistan. The force requirements needed in order to threaten assured retaliation against China may allow India to pursue more aggressive strategies, with the potential for a first strike against Pakistan. India currently maintains a No First Use policy, but comments made by Indian officials in August 2019 indicate that New Delhi may be reconsidering this policy. India possesses a full nuclear triad and is currently pursuing modernization.

    https://armscontrolcenter.org/indias...-capabilities/

  • #2
    Pakistan Nuclear Weapons

    A Brief History of Pakistan's Nuclear Program


    Pakistan's nuclear weapons program was established in 1972 by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who founded the program while he was Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, and later became President and Prime Minister. Shortly after the loss of East Pakistan in the 1971 war with India, Bhutto initiated the program with a meeting of physicists and engineers at Multan in January 1972.

    India's 1974 testing of a nuclear "device" gave Pakistan's nuclear program new momentum. Through the late 1970s, Pakistan's program acquired sensitive uranium enrichment technology and expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr. Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies that he had acquired through his position at the classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands. Dr. Khan also reportedly brought with him stolen uranium enrichment technologies from Europe. He was put in charge of building, equipping and operating Pakistan's Kahuta facility, which was established in 1976. Under Khan's direction, Pakistan employed an extensive clandestine network in order to obtain the necessary materials and technology for its developing uranium enrichment capabilities.

    In 1985, Pakistan crossed the threshold of weapons-grade uranium production, and by 1986 it is thought to have produced enough fissile material for a nuclear weapon. Pakistan continued advancing its uranium enrichment program, and according to Pakistani sources, the nation acquired the ability to carry out a nuclear explosion in 1987.

    https://fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/nuke/

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    • #3
      Are Pakistan’s Battlefield Nuclear Weapons a Mirage?


      What exactly is behind Pakistan’s much-discussed low-yield Nasr? And how might it be used?

      ASIA DEFENSE

      Are Pakistan’s Battlefield Nuclear Weapons a Mirage?


      What exactly is behind Pakistan’s much-discussed low-yield Nasr? And how might it be used?

      By Aditya Ramanathan and Kunaal Kini
      May 07, 2019Credit: Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR)ADVERTISEMENT
      In April 2011, Pakistan conducted the first test of its short-range Hatf-IX or Nasr rocket. The test was interpreted as marking a shift in Pakistan’s nuclear posture to “full spectrum deterrence,” which envisages a complete range of “strategic, operational and tactical” nuclear weapons that would give India “no place to hide.” More specifically, Pakistan claimed the Nasr was intended to “pour cold water over Cold Start,” the name given to the Indian Army’s doctrine, which involves the rapid mobilization of division-sized integrated battle groups making shallow incursions into Pakistani territory.

      https://thediplomat.com/2019/05/are-...pons-a-mirage/

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      • #4
        The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the authority responsible for command, control and operational decisions regarding India's nuclear weapons programme.[1]

        https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucl...thority_(India)

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        • #5
          Pakistan’s Tactical Nuclear Weapons and Their Impact on Stability

          In the current environment, the introduction of tactical nuclear weapons by Pakistan in response to India’s limited war strategy is only a means of reinforcing deterrence and enhancing stability at the higher level of conflict by inducing instability at the lower levels.

          https://carnegieendowment.org/2016/0...lity-pub-63911

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          • #6
            How the IAF compares with the PAF

            India-Pakistan tensions have assumed an aerial dimension with the recent combat engagements between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). Air power is the total military capability of a nation for use of aircraft and missiles. So how does the IAF compare with its arch rival the PAF?

            The IAF has maintained a numerical edge in terms of fighter aircraft over the PAF of almost 3:1. With depletion of numbers in the IAF’s combat squadrons, this edge is currently down to around 1.4:1. The strength of the combat squadrons will soon drop below 30 squadrons. Once the IAF gets back to its sanctioned strength of 42 squadrons, the edge should evolve to 2:1.

            https://www.thehindubusinessline.com...11688.ece/amp/

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            • #7
              Pakistan Is the Only Muslim Nuclear State – So Why Is Israel's Hysteria Reserved for Iran?

              During his first term in office, U.S. President Barack Obama reportedly told his staff that the possible breakup of Pakistan and the subsequent danger of a scramble for nuclear weapons was his greatest national security concern. Indeed, terrorists have tried on several occasions to assassinate the former president of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf. In such circumstances, Pakistan’s nuclear weapons could be stolen or smuggled out of the country, with the possibility of rogue elements targeting Israel.

              https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/.pre...bomb-1.5364286

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