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The effect of the French colonialization of Canada on the indigenous population?

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  • The effect of the French colonialization of Canada on the indigenous population?

    I was reading an article on the battle for Quebec when General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm and it took me back to when I was at school in England in the 1940s when the battle for Québec was about the only Canadian history we were taught.

    My thoughts are that surely Canadian history can’t be considered as starting at the battle for Québec. However, I don’t want to go back to Canadian history of 1st Century but it would certainly be interesting were I to be able to look at the effect of the colonialization of Canada by the French on the indigenous population but so far I have been unable to find any authoritative reading matter on that subject which is why I joined this forum. So does anyone have any reading suggestions?

  • #2
    This was the high point of Canadian history

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WPzaVDilFEI

    and that was 46 years ago. Since then it's been nothing but Molson and Bryan Adams.

    Rimshot

    Mods, might this thread be better placed in the colonial expansion forum?
    I was married for two ******* years! Hell would be like Club Med! - Sam Kinison

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    • #3
      Trudeau is 1/2000 part Indian.

      On a more serious note, colonization began before Quebec. It began with Jacques Cartier, and there should be some books out there in French Canadian history from his time to that of Montcalm. The Jesuits are interesting for their relations with natives. If you want a native history going back to the first century you're not going to get it; the natives had no wirrten records.
      "It is a fine fox chase, my boys"

      "It is well that war is so terrible-we would grow too fond of it"

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      • #4
        I have not found anything that exactly addresses your interest, but can make a couple of recommendations.

        The Crucible of war war by Fred Anderson provides a great deal of insight as to the operation of the French colony before the fall of Quebec
        https://www.amazon.com/Crucible-War-...and+indian+war
        and

        The explorer De LaSalle's journals discussed his experiences with the Indians, but dealt more with those in the areas he explored than in Canada.
        Avatar is General Gerard, courtesy of Zouave.

        Churchill to Chamberlain: you had a choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor, and you will have war.

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        • #5
          Originally posted by American87 View Post
          Trudeau is 1/2000 part Indian.

          On a more serious note, colonization began before Quebec. It began with Jacques Cartier, and there should be some books out there in French Canadian history from his time to that of Montcalm. The Jesuits are interesting for their relations with natives. If you want a native history going back to the first century you're not going to get it; the natives had no wirrten records.
          French colonization of North America may have had a start with Jacques Cartier, but the French didn't stay, and he was somewhat discredited. Thanks to Giovanni da Verrazzano's efforts for the Crown in 1524, France initially claimed most of the area from Newfoundland to Florida. With that in mind, Cartier made three voyages of exploration to what is now Canada over 1534-42; he reconnoitred, wintered, even named it Canada, and returned with "treasure" which turned out to be fools gold. For that reason, and the intercedence of the French Wars of Religion, there was no colonizing by the French at the time, who didn't return to North America officially until the early 1600's i.e. over 60 years later. Samuel de Champlain was a member of the group that would take up the task of colonizing North America, their first settlement, in the Bay of Fundy in 1604, later became known as "Acadie". Their next stop, in 1605, was Cape Cod; they weren't welcomed by the indigenous people and since trade with the locals was a primary consideration decided not to stay. Champlain determined to sail into the "St. Laurent", where he would establish "Nouvelle-France", starting at the narrows, i.e. "Québec", in 1608.
          "I am Groot"
          - Groot

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          • #6
            Originally posted by BML View Post
            I was reading an article on the battle for Quebec when General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm and it took me back to when I was at school in England in the 1940s when the battle for Québec was about the only Canadian history we were taught.

            My thoughts are that surely Canadian history can’t be considered as starting at the battle for Québec. However, I don’t want to go back to Canadian history of 1st Century but it would certainly be interesting were I to be able to look at the effect of the colonialization of Canada by the French on the indigenous population but so far I have been unable to find any authoritative reading matter on that subject which is why I joined this forum. So does anyone have any reading suggestions?

            I suspect that what I'm recommending here will be very different from those books you read in school in England, back in the 1940's, because the best sources are written in French by Canadien's and seldom taken into account by Anglophones. The foremost Canadien academic sources are Marcel Trudel and Guy Frégault, few of their works have been translated into English, fortunately these are available:

            "The Beginnings of New France, 1524-1663", by Marcel Trudel
            "Canada, the War of the Conquest", by Guy Frégault

            I'll add one recent "1759, the Battle for Canada", by Laurier LaPierre

            I would be remiss if I didn't mention René Chartrand, former academic and Chief Curator of the National Historic Sites Service of Parks Canada, who's written dozens of books for Osprey, including:

            "The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600-1763"
            "Quebec 1759"
            "Tomahawk and Musket: French and Indian Raids in the Ohio Valley 1758"
            "Monongahela 1754-55: Washington's defeat, Braddock's disaster"
            "Montcalm's Crushing Blow: French and Indian Raids along New York's Oswego River 1756", and others

            For more First Nations specific by a Canadian academic:

            "Friend and Foe, Aspects of French - Ameridian Cultural Contact in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries" and "The French Regime in the Upper Country", by Cornelius J. Jaenen

            American? I personally would avoid any work that gives "Francis Parkman" more than a mention as a source, unless the usage is qualified; Parkman is ubiquitous in American history. Incidentally, "Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766" by Fred Anderson as recommended by Cambronnne passes the Parkman litmus test.

            That said, the Pulitzer Prize nominated, "The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650 - 1815", by Richard White is a personal favourite. Ironically, it won the "Francis Parkman Prize" for best book on American history when published, back in 1991.

            Hope this helps.


            Last edited by Marmat; 18 Oct 18, 20:48.
            "I am Groot"
            - Groot

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            • #7
              Are you doing it on purpose to create threads that could easily fit to the history section at a time when in another thread people are talking about the need to post less in the CE and more in the different historical sections? It is not that it bothers me to see such threads here. It is just that I find it weird....
              My most dangerous mission: I landed in the middle of an enemy tank battalion and I immediately, started spraying bullets killing everybody around me having fun up until my computer froze...

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              • #8
                Originally posted by pamak View Post
                Are you doing it on purpose to create threads that could easily fit to the history section at a time when in another thread people are talking about the need to post less in the CE and more in the different historical sections? It is not that it bothers me to see such threads here. It is just that I find it weird....
                C'mon, cut BML some slack here; he joined ACG on 13 Oct 18, and this is his first post, a request for assistance.
                "I am Groot"
                - Groot

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                • #9
                  OK! I missed that. My apologies to the poster.
                  My most dangerous mission: I landed in the middle of an enemy tank battalion and I immediately, started spraying bullets killing everybody around me having fun up until my computer froze...

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                  • #10
                    I should add, the Jesuits in New France wrote many letters. Here is a link to some: http://moses.creighton.edu/kripke/je...ations_01.html

                    If you just Google, "Jesuit letters from New France" or something like that, there will be plenty of results. The originals are in French, so you'll have to know that language or find translations.

                    The letters will obviously be from the French, Roman Catholic, missionary point of view, but the natives didn't leave written records, so anything from their side is going to be tough to come by.
                    "It is a fine fox chase, my boys"

                    "It is well that war is so terrible-we would grow too fond of it"

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                    • #11
                      This might be interesting

                      https://archive.org/details/oldregim...kgoog/page/n10

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                      • #12
                        And from my end of the country here's an excellent paper "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749-61: A Study in Political Interaction" this includes the period of the expulsion of the french acadiens in 1755 which preceded the Battle of Quebec. The Acadien society that was built before the French Indian Wars was one where the French and Indian population lived somewhat in peace and harmony and were somewhat allied to each other against the English. The Acadiens also struggled to avoid coming under French control. It also explains that the indians did not always get along with themselves.

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                        • #13
                          My apologies for not replying sooner but I thought information on post sent would be sent out. However, many thanks for the information and book recommendations. BML

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                          • #14
                            Originally posted by Marmat;n50692 b62

                            French colonization of North America may have had a start with Jacques Cartier, but the French didn't stay, and he was somewhat discredited. Thanks to Giovanni da Verrazzano's efforts for the Crown in 1524, France initially claimed most of the area from Newfoundland to Florida. With that in mind, Cartier made three voyages of exploration to what is now Canada over 1534-42; he reconnoitred, wintered, even named it Canada, and returned with "treasure" which turned out to be fools gold. For that reason, and the intercedence of the French Wars of Religion, there was no colonizing by the French at the time, who didn't return to North America officially until the early 1600's i.e. over 60 years later. Samuel de Champlain was a member of the group that would take up the task of colonizing North America, their first settlement, in the Bay of Fundy in 1604, later became known as "Acadie". Their next stop, in 1605, was Cape Cod; they weren't welcomed by the indigenous people and since trade with the locals was a primary consideration decided not to stay. Champlain determined to sail into the "St. Laurent", where he would establish "Nouvelle-France", starting at the narrows, i.e. "Québec", in 1608.
                            The Metis nation started nine months after Cartier's arrival.....
                            Actually it is a good topic. New France was a supply base for the fur trade, and resulted in metal Goods networks across North America.
                            I believe the landing of 1605 was at Cap des Pisines Gross...
                            The trout who swims against the current gets the most oxygen..

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                            • #15
                              Originally posted by Marmat View Post


                              I suspect that what I'm recommending here will be very different from those books you read in school in England, back in the 1940's,

                              The books I read at school in the late 40s early 50s actually contained a lot about the early French forays into North America just as they covered the early Dutch settlements in South Africa and French India. They did not begin with Wolf at Quebec nor did they end there as they also covered the contribution that French Canadians made in repelling the American invasion in 1812
                              Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H G Wells)
                              Mit der Dummheit kaempfen Goetter selbst vergebens (Friedrich von Schiller)

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