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Last years of the Weimar Republic

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  • Last years of the Weimar Republic

    Following Germany's defeat in World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918. In 1919 a national assembly convened in the city of Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, that was adopted on August 11. The first attempt to establish a liberal democracy in Germany failed with the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Although technically the 1919 constitution was not invalidated until after World War II, the legal measures taken by the Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as Gleichschaltung, destroyed the mechanisms of a true democracy. Therefore 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and as the beginning of Hitler's so-called "Third Reich".


  • #2
    1927 Erich Ludendorff with the Völkisch Front

    1927. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liège, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. After the war, he briefly supported Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. He was acquitted of criminal charges for his role in the Nazis' unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. In 1924, he was elected to the Reichstag as a representative of the NSFB (a coalition of the German Völkisch Freedom Party and members of the Nazi Party), serving until 1928. He ran in the 1925 presidential election against former commander Paul von Hindenburg and received just 285,793 votes. After 1928, Ludendorff went into retirement, having fallen out with the Nazi party. He no longer approved of Hitler and began to regard him as just another manipulative politician, and perhaps worse. After learning that Hitler had been appointed chancellor of Germany, an aging Ludendorff reportedly sent a telegram to President von Hindenburg: "By appointing Hitler Chancellor of the Reich, you have handed over our sacred German Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues of all time. I prophesy to you this evil man will plunge our Reich into the abyss and will inflict immeasurable woe on our nation. Future generations will curse you in your grave for this action."


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    • #3
      1930 Allied evacuation of the Rhineland

      1930. Following the Armistice of 1918, Allied forces occupied the Rhineland as far east as the river with some small bridgeheads on the east bank at places like Cologne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 the occupation was continued. The treaty specified three occupation Zones, which were due to be evacuated by Allied troops five, ten and finally 15 years after the formal ratification of the treaty, which took place in 1920, thus the occupation was intended to last until 1935. In fact, the last Allied troops left Germany five years prior to that date in 1930 in a good-will reaction to the Weimar Republic's policy of reconciliation in the era of Gustav Stresemann and the Locarno Pact.

      The French leave Koblenz



      The British leave Wiesbaden


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      • #4
        Didn't know this. Cheers!
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        Global Warming & Climate Change Myths: https://www.skepticalscience.com/argument.php

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        • #5
          1930 Hitler in Munich

          October 1930. Hitler reviews his followers as they march through the streets of Munich. The Reichstag general elections on September 14, 1930 resulted in an enormous political shift: 18.3% of the vote went to the Nazis, five times the percentage compared to 1928. This increased legislative representation of the NSDAP had devastating consequences for the Republic. There was no longer a moderate majority in the Reichstag even for a Great Coalition of moderate parties, and this encouraged the supporters of the Nazis to force their claim to power with increasing violence and terror. After 1930, the Republic slid more and more into a state of potential civil war.

          Last edited by Skoblin; 06 Mar 09, 17:05.

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          • #6
            1931 Hitlers reviews his Brownshirts

            Unknown location from 1931 of Hitler reviewing his Sturmabteilung. The Sturmabteilung, abbreviated SA, (German for "Assault detachment" or "Assault section", usually translated as "stormtroopers", functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s. SA men were often called "brownshirts", for the colour of their uniforms, and to distinguish them from the Schutzstaffel (SS), who wore black and brown uniforms.Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them was cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered for German troops serving in Africa. The SA was also the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks would be adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief among them the SS. They were very important to Hitler's rise to power until they were superseded by the SS after the Night of the Long Knives.


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            • #7
              1931 Chancellor Dr. Heinrich Brüning

              1931. Dr. Heinrich Brüning, German Chancellor from 1930 to 1932. In 1930, when the Grand coalition under the Social Democrat Hermann Müller collapsed, Brüning was appointed chancellor on March 29, 1930. The government was confronted with the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression. Brüning disclosed to his associates in the German Labour Federation that his chief aim as Chancellor would be to liberate the German economy from the burden of continuing to pay war reparations. This would require an unpopular policy of tight credit and a rollback of all wage and salary increases. Brüning's financial and economic acumen combined with his openness to social questions made him a candidate for Chancellor and his service as a front officer made him acceptable to President Paul von Hindenburg.


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              • #8
                Originally posted by skoblin View Post
                1931. Dr. Heinrich Brüning, German Chancellor from 1930 to 1932. In 1930, when the Grand coalition under the Social Democrat Hermann Müller collapsed, Brüning was appointed chancellor on March 29, 1930. The government was confronted with the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression. Brüning disclosed to his associates in the German Labour Federation that his chief aim as Chancellor would be to liberate the German economy from the burden of continuing to pay war reparations. This would require an unpopular policy of tight credit and a rollback of all wage and salary increases. Brüning's financial and economic acumen combined with his openness to social questions made him a candidate for Chancellor and his service as a front officer made him acceptable to President Paul von Hindenburg.
                Sounds like he deserved a medal.
                How to Talk to a Climate Skeptic: http://grist.org/series/skeptics/
                Global Warming & Climate Change Myths: https://www.skepticalscience.com/argument.php

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by Nick the Noodle View Post
                  Sounds like he deserved a medal.
                  Unfortunately, Bruning's policies, although they did manage to eventually eliminate Allied war preparations, had a devastating effect on the German domestic economy, especially among the middle classes, who ended up turning to ward the National Socialists.

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                  • #10
                    1931 Hitler in Braunschweig

                    March 1931. In the municipal elections in the state of Braunschweig on 1 March 1931, the Nazi party against expectation emerged as the third strongest party (10 seats) behind the Sozialdemokratische Partei and Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (18 seats between them).


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                    • #11
                      1931 Hindenburg regimental ceremony

                      April 13, 1931. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg was a German field marshal and statesman.Hindenburg enjoyed a long if undistinguished career in the Prussian army, eventually retiring in 1911. He was recalled at the outbreak of the First World War, and first came to national attention, at the age of sixty-six, as the victor at Tannenberg in 1914. As Germany's supreme commander from 1916, he and his chief of staff, Erich Ludendorff, rose in the German public's esteem until Hindenburg came to eclipse the Kaiser himself. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life one more time in 1925 to be elected as the second President of Germany.


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                      • #12
                        1931 Stahlhelm march in Berlin

                        The Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten was one of the many paramilitary organizations that arose after the defeat of World War I in the Weimar Republic. The Stahlhelm was founded at the end of 1918 partly by Franz Seldte in the city of Magdeburg. Its journal, Stahlhelm, was edited by Count Hans-Jürgen von Blumenthal, later hanged for his part in the July 20 plot. The organization was a rallying point for nationalistic and anti-Weimar elements. With 500,000 members in 1930, the Stahlhelm was the largest paramilitary organization of Weimar Germany. In 1929 the Stahlhelm joined the Volksentscheid gegen den Young-Plan to demonstrate against the Young Plan. The Stahlhelm joined the DNVP, NSDAP and Alldeutscher Verband to form the Harzburger Front, which was a united right-wing front against the Weimar Republic. In 1934 the Stahlhelm was renamed Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Frontkämpferbund and integrated into the Sturmabteilung and, in 1935, it was dissolved by the Nazis, who feared its fundamentally monarchist character.

                        Last edited by Skoblin; 08 Mar 09, 23:33.

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                        • #13
                          1931 German financial crisis

                          July 1931. The Weimar Republic had some of the most serious economic problems ever experienced by any Western democracy in history. Rampant hyperinflation, massive unemployment and a large drop in living standards were primary factors. In 1923-29 there was a short period of economic recovery, but the Great Depression of the 1930s led to a worldwide recession. Germany was particularly affected because it depended heavily on American loans. In 1932, about 5 million Germans were unemployed. Many blamed the Weimar Republic. This was made apparent when political parties on both right and left wanting to disband the Republic altogether made any democratic majority in Parliament impossible. The Weimar Republic was severely affected by the Great Depression triggered by the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The crash and subsequent economic stagnation led to increased demands on Germany to repay the debts owed to the United States. As the Weimar Republic was very fragile in all of its existence, the depression proved to be devastating, and played a major role in the NSDAP's takeover.


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                          • #14
                            This is the stuff my wife likes. Once her school inspection is over after Easter I'll get her to join ACG.
                            How to Talk to a Climate Skeptic: http://grist.org/series/skeptics/
                            Global Warming & Climate Change Myths: https://www.skepticalscience.com/argument.php

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                            • #15
                              1931 Herbert Hoover on German War Debt

                              July 16, 1931. In June 1931, to deal with a very serious banking collapse in Vienna that threatened to cause a worldwide financial meltdown, Hoover issued the Hoover Moratorium that called for a one-year halt in reparations payments by Germany to France and in the payment of Allied war debts to the United States. The Hoover Moratorium had the effect of temporarily stopping the banking collapse in Europe. In June 1932, a conference canceled all reparations payments by Germany.


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