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  • Warrior Cultures

    I wrote this about a year-and-a-half ago for a research paper project and I'd like someone to read it and comment. It's not very detailed, though, so bear with me. I basically used one book as a resource for most of this paper. I did use other sources, though. I wrote this before my interest in history really kicked off, so some of the info is incorrect or I just kept it simple for the teach.


    Warrior Cultures

    In the words of 2nd Lt. Alfred Joubert, French Army, “Humanity is mad! What scenes of horror and carnage! Hell cannot be so terrible. Men are mad!” This diary entry, written on May 23, 1916 at the Battle of Verdun, is the basic definition of war for the last five thousand years; war has been as much a part of human history, as politics has been part of civilization. Since the earliest battles in Sumeria and Egypt, war has defined humanity and civilization. The first recorded battle was the Battle of Megiddo in 1457 BC. In this battle Pharaoh Thutmose III, of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, attacked the Palestinians, under the King of Kadesh. After the Egyptian victory, Thutmose had to lay siege on Megiddo because his troops stopped to loot the Palestinian camp.

    Ever since war has begun, it has become deadlier and deadlier. At first there were bronze weapons, then civilizations started to use iron weapons. After the iron weapons came steel. Then one of the most influential additions to warfare was gunpowder, created during the technological, religious, and social revolution known as the Renaissance. After gunpowder was put into use, shields, maces, swords, axes, pikes, staffs, crossbows, bows, and cavalry became more and more irrelevant to warfare. When firearms became more important in warfare, it evolved from the simple arquebus to the matchlock musket. As the matchlock became obsolete, the wheelock musket became more reliable, but then the flintlock musket came to the scene. The flintlock firearms, which weren't replaced for another 150 or so years, became the rifle by the 1840's, but rifles weren't put use in battle until the middle of the American Civil War. The first large scale use of rifles in war, took place during the Austro-Prussian War. In 1863, John Gatling created the Gatling gun. The Gatling Gun was the primitive, hand-cranked machine gun. By the time of World War I, machine guns were using the model of the Maxim machine gun and manually loaded repeating rifles were being built in very large numbers. Also in World War I the tank had been introduced into warfare. By WWII, submachine guns had been introduced to warfare, along with gas-operated machine guns and the bazooka. Then in 1960's the helicopter were being used as infantry-support and infantry weapons, respectively. Also in the 1960's automatic rifles started to replace regular rifles. By the 21st century, warfare has become much more technologically advanced.



    Charioteers

    Some of the finest weaponry in ancient warfare came from Mesopotamia. One of these weapons of war was the first “troop carrier”, the chariot. Chariot teams consisted of two men, a driver and an archer, or swordsman, pulled by a horse. Charioteers would ride into battle with the archers flinging arrows at each other, sometimes the archers or the horses or the drivers. If an army broke and ran from the battlefield, archers on chariots would kill numerous fleeing soldiers much the same way as cavalry would by the time of the Greek city-states.

    Hoplites

    Later on in history came the Greek Hoplites. The Greek hoplites were often equipped with a spear, a xiphos (sword), and a shield. The Spartan hoplites started training from the early age of seven years old. As they trained, the training weapons used went from wooden, non-lethal sticks to a full Spartan spear. At the age of 18 or 21, you would be inducted into the Spartan army, until the age of 40. In Spartan society, it was believed to fight to the death, as it was considered dishonorable to flee from battle. During battle, the Greeks became famous for their use of the phalanx formation. The phalanx formation was where hoplites were, literally, packed together like sardines. The soldier standing to the right of you would hold his shield in front of you, as would you to the soldier to your left. As the enemy charged you would hold your spear at the ready, stabbing with it as the enemy got closer. This type of warfare kept the myth of hoplite invulnerability alive. If the enemy happened to get past your spear, you would pull out your xiphos and start fighting in hand-to-hand combat. Some of the flaws in the phalanx formation was that it was vulnerable along the flanks of your army that the phalanx was really only truly effective in wide open plains.

    Legionnaires

    In 509 BC, the Roman Republic was founded. The Romans have been well known for their Legionnaires. The Romans adopted their first style of warfare from their former rulers, the Etruscans. The Etruscans used the type of warfare the Greeks used, the phalanx. For the Romans, the phalanx was not a good type of battle formations because of the hilly terrain of central Italy. To solve this problem, the Romans adopted the manipluar style of warfare from the Samnites to the south. The Romans had a strict way to recruit men into their Legions. The first requirement was that you had to be a member of the fifth census class or higher. The second requirement was that you had to own property and your property had to be worth 3,000 sesterces, the Roman currency. The final requirement was that you had to supply your own weapons and armaments. Well, a Roman consul, Gaius Marius, was discontented with these requirements, so he decided to make reforms in the Roman army. One of the reforms was that all men were eligible to be part of the Roman army. In the Roman army, a 1st Century AD Legionnaire was given a marching pack consisting of two leather bags, a flask, a cooking pan, a woolen cloak and blanket, and a bag for carrying provisions. They were also given Gallic-style helmets, Cuirass, or body armor, a belt and apron, and a tunic. The average Legionnaire was also equipped with a pilum, or javelin, a gladius, the scabbard for the gladius, a dagger, and a rectangular shield. The Romans use of the Manipluar formation was often very effective in battle. The Roman Legion was made up of 2 artillery/ archer units on the left and right flanks, cavalry in the rear, and slingers/skirmishers in front of the artillery and archer units, on the left and right flanks. In the center of the Legion, were the Legionnaires. The Legionnaire part of the Roman army consisted of a first cohort on the left flank, made up of five centuries. Then there would be 10 columns of cohorts with six centuries in each cohort. In the Legions the First cohort had 900 men, while the other ten cohorts had 480 legionnaires each. Each cohort was divided into six centuries, except for the First cohort which had five centuries. One century was made up of 80 legionnaires except the First cohort which had six centuries of 160 legionnaires each. Also each legion was commanded by a Legatus. The Romans were as effective in open warfare as they were with sieges. One siege technique the Legionnaires used was the tortoise formation. In the tortoise formation, a legionnaire was pretty much invulnerable to arrow fire. When the Romans fought the Barbarians to the North of the Alps and the Danube and to the east of the Rhine, their carefully trained troops were completely stunned by the ferocity the barbarians exhibited in battle. By 476 AD the era of the Legionnaire might was over.

    Vikings

    On September 2, 476, Emperor Romulus Augustus of Rome was deposed. Most historians mark this as the point of the beginning of the 1,000 year, EUROPEAN DARK AGES. During the middle Ages, many of the advances in technology, science and art, from Antiquity, were lost to the chaos of the Dark Ages. Many barbarians, such as the Cimbri, Teutones, Visigoths, Gauls and Ostrogoths, sacked, destroyed, and pillaged all of what was the Western Roman Empire, from Hispania to Italy to Gaul. The Eastern Roman Empire, eventually renamed the Byzantine Empire was the sole, surviving heir to Rome. Out of the chaos emerged the Vikings. The vikings came from an agricultural and fishing community. They descended upon Europe from Scandinavia. In the viking culture, when a father died, his eldest son received all of his possessions, leaving the younger siblings nothing. Many historians believe that either overpopulation of the Scandinavian coast or the possessions ideal contributed to the eventual Viking raids. Either way the vikings were a very fierce warrior culture. Viking raiders initially raided coastal settlements. During the period of the 840's, the vikings began to winter at fortified camps, such as the Ile de Noirmoutier, Dublin, and the Isle of Thanet. During 886 and 887, the vikings besieged Paris, France. Then in 911, the Franks granted the vikings Normandy. Also vikings settled in their Kingdoms of Novgorod and Kiev. The viking culture had many gods, one god was known as Odin, and Odin was the vikings one-eyed warrior god. The most devoted men to Odin were known as the Berserkers. The berserkers are what most people view all vikings to be. The Berserkers fought with only bear or wolf skins on their bodies. Historians believe the Berserkers went berserk because of drinking much alcohol or eating drugs before a battle. The average 10th century viking wore a helmet called the Gjermundbu helm, an undertunic and a padded top over the undertunic, a belt and pouch for provisions, with an ax holder. Vikings also wore a chain mail coat with drawstring trousers called a hose. On their feet, vikings would wear nailed together Hedeby shoes. One weapon vikings used was the arrow. Vikings had five different styles of arrows, they were: fire arrows, sail splitters, cavalry arrows, barbed arrows, and the short bodkin arrow. Other weapons the vikings used were double edged swords, the Dane ax, the Battle ax, and the Skeg ax, and a Sax, which reminds me of a dagger. Viking warriors were also usually equipped with round shields.


    Medieval Knights

    In feudal Europe, Christianity was the main religion, but out in 7th century Saudi Arabia, Muhammad ibn 'Abullāh started to preach Islam in Mecca, the holiest city in the Islamic world. As history rolled on, the Seljuk Turks, a predominately Muslim people, began attacking the borders of the Byzantine Empires borders in the 700's. The Rashidun Caliphate, a Muslim dynasty, captured the Holy Land in the early and mid-630s. The Fatimid Caliphate, another Muslim dynasty ruling over the lands of Egypt, Sicily, Maghreb, and Malta, ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. After a council with the Byzantine ambassador over the increasingly predominate Seljuk problem, Pope Urban II called upon all the peoples of Christian Europe to fight the Islamic infidels and reclaim the Holy Land from their clutches. Peasant and nobleman alike responded to the call, ready to reclaim the Holy Land and its ultimate prize, Jerusalem, at all costs. The first crusade was a smashing success for Europe, but this was to be the only crusade, out of nine, that Europe would succeed in against the Muslim infidels. With the crusades, came about the rise of the Knights. In reality Knights were often brash, overconfident, and optimistic seeking the “adventure” and “glory” of war. The knights that went off to fight in the Crusades were mostly noblemen, as knighthood was gained only by being of high status. The knights of Europe were the dominant military force in Europe from the Crusades until the early 1600’s; most likely because of the tactics the knights employed could not out pace technological development. With the rise of pike men, knights would often have their horses stabbed by a pike mans 16 ft. pike. The knights of many movies and modern books are depicted as noble and wise heroes in battle the overconfidence of the Knights would cause the Crusaders to be defeated in battle. One example is that during the Battle of Al Mansurah, the knights used their “hammer blow” tactic on the Egyptian defenders, sending them, as a disorganized mass, into the safety of the city, Al Mansurah, Egypt. The knights followed in haste into the city, disobeying the orders of French King Louis IX to stay where they were, the resulting melee decimated the knights, because of the street fighting in Al Mansurah. One of the military orders of Knights was the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon or the Knights Templar. The Knights Templar had a belief that is a moral obligation today: “Never leave a man behind”. This basically meant to the Templars that you couldn't retreat from battle without the other Templar knights or else you would be cast from the Order. The Templars also believed it was honorable to die in battle instead of being captured as the Samurai and Japanese would later believe. The Christian knights would often take part in tournaments from the popular joust to mock battles between two sides. These tournaments were often used to fulfill a knight’s pursuit of glory and wealth, and as a way to have competition between knights without the serious risk of death. A Thirteenth-century knight wore full metal armor consisting o a close helm, a gorget, used to protect the neck, a breastplate on the torso, a pauldron on the each arm, Tassets on the thighs, Cuisses' on the knees, and Sabatons on the lower legs and feet. Knights would often carry one-handed Swords, war-hammers or maces as their main weapon and a dagger as a secondary weapon. As the knights’ usefulness in battle fell, the infantry arose once more as the dominant force in warfare, in Europe, since the Roman legionnaires.

    Mongol Horsemen

    These warriors were described as “A savage people, hellish of aspect, as voracious as wolves in their hunger for spoils... brave as lions...” by Queen Russudan of Georgia. The faces of terror, they were the Mongols. The Mongols basically defined the use of terror in warfare. Queen Russudan’s quote is an accurate description of Mongol warfare. The Mongols use of terror struck fear into the very souls of all people, from the Chinese to the Persians to the Muslims to the Christians. One of the methods the Mongols used was that if a city did not surrender immediately, if it showed the slightest resistance, the Mongols would burn the city to the ground, kill all animals and livestock, enslave all of the women and children, and kill the city’s male population. The Mongols use of swift horse archers easily outperformed the Christian knights in their heavy armor. It was said that baby Mongols learned to ride a horse before they could walk. Just as the horse archers of Parthia, in present-day Iran, decimated the Roman Legions, the Mongol horsemen annihilated the Christian armies of Eastern and Central Europe. When the Mongols fought, one their favorite tactics was to feign retreat, then as the disorganized enemy charged, the horse archers would fire hails of arrows at the disorganized mass, as the enemy began to fall back, the elite Mongol armored horsemen would crash into the enemy with a melee ensuing. As the melee ensued, the Mongol horsemen on the army’s wings would envelop the enemy, which resulted in total annihilation of the enemy. Another tactic a horse archer would use was the Parthian shot. The Parthian shot involved the user to turn his body around, while riding his horse, shooting at a pursuing enemy, while at full gallop. The Parthian shot required extreme skills in equestrianism. The Mongols had the largest land empire in history. The Mongol Empire stretched from the present-day Russian and Chinese coasts to present-day Ukraine. They acquired this land through numerous campaigns lasting over 200 to 300 years. Although the Mongols have been perceived as bloodthirsty, savage creatures from hell, many of the Mongol khans, or kings, often knew to spare the artisans and architects of the sack and destroyed cities. These women and men would often create beautiful palaces and buildings. Also they would create tapestries, carpets, rugs, paintings, clothing, jewelry, etc. One of the most famous Mongol Khans was Timur. Timur was a man of Turkic descent, not of Mongol descent. Timur was also known as Tamerlane. Timur was a military genius. Even though he wanted to redeem the Mongol Empire of his ancestors, he fought the fiercest with the Mongol Golden Horde khanate. The Empire he created, in the1370’s stretched from present-day Pakistan to Central Iraq. Another Khan was Kublai Khan, a direct descendent of Genghis Khan. Kublai Khan led the Mongols in China during the 1260’s to the 1290’s. Fighting against the Song Dynasty caused the Mongols to have a technological and military tactics revolution. Kublai Khan was soon having his armies fight with crossbows, the ballista, early gunpowder weapons and bomb flinging catapults, ancient flamethrowers, and early forms of the handgun. The Mongols attempted to invade the Japanese Home Islands twice, and both times the Mongols failed due to stiff Japanese resistance and a monster tsunami. A 13th century Mongol horseman would wear leather armor and a leather helmet, but armor was usually worn by the Mongols’ elite warriors. An armored Mongol warrior would carry swords, maces, and lances. All Mongol warriors would carry twin daggers. A Mongol horse archer would use composite bows.

    Landsknechts

    As the Renaissance came about, the infantry, once thought of as lowly peasants, began to defeat the “great and powerful” knights of the medieval ages with the creation of the pike. The pikemen began to be hired as mercenaries. They were greatly feared by the knights of Europe. With the development of gunpowder in the Renaissance, the earliest gunpowder weapons, the arquebus, were paired with pikemen, as they were very slow in reloading; this weakness of the arquebusiers meant that they were extremely vulnerable to mounted warriors and knights. In Renaissance Europe, professional mercenaries were used during war time to replace professional armies. The use of mercenaries was continued up until the French Revolutionary Wars, where conscription was reintroduced by Napoleon Bonaparte. One group of mercenaries came from the depths of Germany, the Landsknechts. The Landsknechts were lavishly dressed mercenaries. Landsknechts were known as extremely tough foot soldiers. In battle they were very effective, but when off the battlefield they were as much a danger to the surrounding populace as the vikings were, too. The reason why the Landsknechts were so dangerous was because when not paid, they would rampage, massacre, and plunder the surrounding country. Landsknechts would create a formation called the Gevierte ordnung. The Gevierte ordnung consisted of a square of pikemen in the center, halberdiers in front of the pikemen, and swordsmen in front of the halberdiers. Behind the pikemen were swordsmen, and behind the swordsmen were pikemen. All around the pikemen, swordsmen, and halberdiers, are arquebusiers. When these mercenaries were attacked by cavalry, they would form the Defensive Igel, or Hedgehog. The Igel was a circle of four rows with pikemen in the center, arquebusiers in the third row, more pikemen in the second row and swordsmen and halberdiers in the outermost row. Landsknechts wore munition armor, with a Burgonet helmet with an open face and cheek guard, breastplates and Tassets. Landsknechts carried pikes, halberd, two-handed swords like the Doppelhänder, or the arquebus.



    *The rest is on the next post.*
    Last edited by Qymaen; 06 Mar 11, 10:21.
    "The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his."~ George Patton

  • #2
    Redcoats

    At the beginning of the Late Napoleonic Wars, these men were described as “…the scum of the earth…” by their commander, the Duke of Wellington. These “scum” were the British Redcoats. The Redcoats were mainly recruited criminals, pickpockets and killers. As for these reasons, when honed, the Redcoats were stubborn and determined fighters. It has been said that if a continuous volley of lead balls did not scare off the enemy, the Redcoats would charge with their glimmering, steel bayonets to drive off the French. The same Redcoats that suffered the humiliating defeat at the hands of the Americans and French, 25 years earlier at the Battle of Yorktown, were victorious against the greatest general of the 19th century1, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France. The Redcoats were known to have the fiercest of determination not to lose in battle. During marches, Redcoats would march 25 kilometers/day. When on the defensive the British preferred to use the Line formation to the Bonaparte’s preferred Column formation. The Line formation consists of two lines of infantry, with one flank held by the light infantry, while the other flank was held by Grenadiers, with eight companies in the center. One company was made up of 50 men. An entire battalion was made up of 50 light infantry, 50 grenadiers, and 400 center men or a grand total of 500 men. They entered into battle in a column and then wheeled around to face the French. Skirmishers, or the light infantry, and the grenadiers would be in front of the eight center companies skirmishing with the advancing French. The battalion was drawn up as two ranks deep, creating a long defensive line. When attacked by cavalry, the Redcoats deployed in the square formation, four ranks deep. In square formation the wounded would be placed in the center. In the two outer ranks Redcoats would have their bayonets raised to repel the cavalry, while the two inner ranks would be firing with their muskets or Baker rifles. During the Napoleonic Wars, rifles sacrificed reloading time for accuracy. A Redcoat wore a red tunic, wool trousers, gaiters and straight-lasted shoes. In battle most Redcoats used the India-Pattern musket, with a bayonet placed over the muskets musket. Though most Redcoats used the musket, some chose to use the Baker rifle. Also along with your musket, you would carry an ammunition bag, holding 60 cartridges, a canteen, with your regimental number, the type of soldier you were, and your battalion number. You would also have a knapsack with flint, your ramrod, a woolen blanket, a food bag, maybe a diary, a fishing kit, a sewing kit, soap and soap dish, a clothes brush, flannel, a telescope, a razor, and a pouch for shaving supplies,

    Sioux Warriors

    On June 26, 1876, a Sioux-Cheyenne army killed 47% of the force under Gen. George A. Custer. The Sioux were a tribe of Plains Indians, native to the North-central United States. The Sioux have always been considered to be a mainly horse tribe and they are. The Sioux, just as the Mongols, learned how to ride horses from an early age. Warfare between Plains Indians usually involved raids against each combatant. Raiding parties consisted of 30-40 warriors. When firearms were introduced to the Sioux, they only found limited use for it, as they were better with bows and arrows on horseback. Warrior societies were a group of men who’d proved their courage and ability and acted like a police enforcing rules against unruly Sioux. When the Sioux began to fight the United States Army, they used the familiar hit-and-run tactics against them. When they were forced to fight straight battles with the US Army, the warrior societies were able to effectively organize and distribute Sioux forces. The Sioux realizing that fighting the US Army in a straight battle would certainly destroy them, they engaged in guerilla warfare against the “white man”. When the Sioux finally surrendered in 1877 and 1881, they were moved to reservations. Ironically, instead of having the Sioux name slandered and the Sioux themselves condemned as barbarians, America embraced them as the noblest of all the Indian savages. In late December 1890, at Wounded Knee Creek, the US 7th Cavalry was charged with arresting a Sioux chief, Big Foot, encamped at Wounded Knee Creek. The coming event was known as the Massacre at Wounded Knee Creek. The massacre was witnessed by interpreter of the US Army, Philip Wells. Big Foot surrendered and his warriors were being disarmed when a medicine man was accused of making mischief. A gun under one of the Indians was found and he was disarmed. Then Wells heard someone shout “Look out, Look out!” Then Wells noticed five or six Indians pull guns out from under their blankets and began to fire at the US soldiers. Later on the fleeing Indians were massacred by the 7th Cavalry’s 4 Hotchkiss Guns, on a hill or ridge above the Sioux encampment, along with the Sioux women and children. Many of those that escaped died of hypothermia. The Sioux wore headdresses and traditional dress into battle. When in battle, the Sioux not only used bows, but also used stoneclubs, pipe tomahawks, a regular tomahawk, and knives.

    Sturmtruppen

    With the use of machine guns universal by World War I, tactics were once again outpaced by technology. During World war I, the massed attacks against an enemy had remained unchanged since the development of this tactic by Napoleon Bonaparte over a century earlier. With massed charges of soldiers across open and flat ground against an entrenched enemy meant thousands of men dying almost instantly. Obviously this tactic had been proven costly during the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, and the American Civil War, but World War I generals failed to learn from this. Receiving their baptism in the muddy and bloody trench fighting of 1915 during World War I. The prototype of the Sturmtruppen was founded by Cpt. Willy Rohr of the Prussian Guards Rifles. By 1916, the German Sturmtruppen were common, but as elite formations, not regular infantry. The Sturmtruppen were like tank infantry, designed to punch holes through enemy trenches. Sturmtruppen were trained to be the elite and act on their own initiative. Despite the fact of superb training the concentration of German losses in World War I, revolved around the Sturmtruppen. In March of 1918, the German High Command launched a Spring Offensive. The Sturmtruppen were quite effective in the Spring Offensive with their grenades, flamethrowers, and submachine guns, like the Bergmann MP 18 Submachine-gun. The Sturmtruppen made offensives from 10 miles deep to 40 miles deep, gains not made since 1914. When World War I ended at 11:00 AM, November 11, 1918, the Sturmtruppen were embittered by sacrificing so much blood, only to have the German government give up. The Sturmtruppen wore “coal scuttle” helmets, and a camouflage tunic and trousers and an equipment belt with a bayonet scabbard, an ax, and an ammunition pouch. The Sturmtruppen also had an assault pack with a trench digging shovel, trench ax, and a zeltbahn (rain poncho). The weapons Sturmtruppen used were submachine guns, machineguns, the Mauser KAR 98AZ, stick grenades, or Stielhandgranate, a fighting knife, a bayonet and 25 round magazines for the Mauser.

    RAF Fighter Pilot

    “…never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” is the famous quote British Prime Winston Churchill gave describing some of the greatest defenders of the British Isles. Who were these people? Why they were the Royal Air Force Fighter Pilots, the defenders of Britain. In one of history’s darkest hours these men pulled through defeating the once thought invincible German Luftwaffe. The victory in the Battle of Britain guaranteed the continuation of World War II and helped America come one step closer to joining Britain in this greatest of crusades. During the Battle of Britain, the courage, spirit and determination of the pilots won one of the greatest battles of history. The RAF lost 1,000 planes to the Luftwaffe’s 1,900 planes. During the Battle of Britain, the Hawker Hurricane was comparable to a Mongol pony, because it was tougher than the Spitfire, while the Supermarine Spitfire was comparable to a thoroughbred horse, because it was faster than the Hurricane. The principle fighters of the RAF by 1942 were the Hawker Hurricanes, the Supermarine Spitfire MK V, and the Supermarine Seafire. The RAF Fighter Command created the “Vic” formation. The “Vic” looked like a V. Squadrons were made of four sections. Each section had three airplanes shaped in a V. A squadron consisted of 12 planes. Other than the “Vic”, sections had three other formations. The Line Abreast where each plane flies wingtip-to-wingtip, maximizing a sections fire power, the Line Astern where the section flies in a column, minimizing the damage inflicted on the planes and Echelon which had the section slanted to the left or right, which could be deployed defensively or offensively. When the RAF pilots approached a bomber squadron, you could attack from below, which was the safest to attack the bombers, or you could attack head-on which was very effective, but required a lot of grit. By 1944, the “Vics” were being flown by entire wings. The “Vic” formation used quickly became obsolete with bomber escorts. Some squadrons fought by the book, which resulted in many fatalities, which proved how the “Vic” was obsolete. 20% of all of the RAF pilots were non-British. The RAF Polish pilots had special and intimate hatred for the Nazi’s and they transferred this hatred towards the Luftwaffe. A RAF pilot wore a flying helmet and goggles, a navy blue blouse and trousers, a brown Irving flying jacket, a pair of 1943escape boots, D-type gauntlets over the pilot’s hands, and an oxygen mask. One of the escape boots the RAF pilots were issued had a knife hidden in a zipper compartment. This knife was their only defensive weapon, unless they had a pistol.

    SOE Agents

    In July of 1940, the Special Operations Executive was established by the British government. The SOE’s objective was to send in SOE Agents into occupied Europe to support and organize resistance fighters against the Third Reich and her allies, to sabotage and to assassinate key figures in the Third Reich, and to gather information for future use against the Third Reich and her allies. While the SOE agents were quite effective, many were captured and interrogated by the Gestapo and the Waffen-SS. SOE agents were taught how to pick locks by burglars and how to forge identification papers by forgers. The beginning of training put an emphasis on physical fitness and how to use basic weapons. If you made it through the initial training you were sent Highlands of Scotland for commando training. After this segment of training you were taught skills such as parachute jumping, sabotage using explosive, and bare handed combat. One of their most notable operations was the Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, deputy chief of the Gestapo. Another notable operation was the Raid on the Norsk Hydro plant, by Norwegian SOE agents. The plant was helping with the development of the German atom bomb by developing heavy water. The plant was destroyed and a ferry carrying a shipment of heavy water. By 1944 the SOE had created resistance groups like the French “maquis” and guerrilla groups in Yugoslavia and Greece. SOE agents wore a variety of clothing depending on the climate of their specified target. The British government did give SOE agents fairly average kinds of weapons. The SOE agents had Welrod .32 Silenced pistols, Hi-Standard .22 Silenced Pistols, Webley & Scott 1907 pistols, a Belt pistol, a jacket-concealed Colt pistol, and a Welgun submachine-gun. SOE Agents also had a variety of unusual weapons like a tear gas pen, a pencil pistol, a pipe pistol, and cigarette pistols. Another type of weapon that was very unique was the crossbow. The crossbow had a metal bolt that you fired when you cranked a windlass handle for tension. SOE agents were also given a wide variety of knives. They had saboteur knives with a curved blade, a double-hooked thrust knife, a pencil knife, and a lapel knife and scabbard.



    War has been constant and has been fought for a variety of reasons, which have changed little in the thousands of years of warfare. Truly the only thing that has changed in warfare is the weapons and the tactics. In the words of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, “It is well that war is so terrible -- lest we should grow too fond of it” and in the words of Union General William T. Sherman “I tell You, War is Hell!” These two quotes define warfare. From the simple, bronze sword of the ancients to the slow-reloading arqeubus to the sophisticated M1A1 tanks, war is just as deadly to humans nowadays as it was for the Israelites during their capture of Canaan, or Israel during the 1050’s BC. The only true way for the Earth to be rid of war is to either have all of the different governments of humanity to create one world government or the annihilation of humanity. So if we want peace the choices basically are to both set aside our feelings of discrimination and hate against other humans or to risk the destruction of Human civilization.
    "The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his."~ George Patton

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    • #3
      Hmm, the article doesn't seem to fit the "Warrior cultures" title - it makes no explanation of what a "warrior culture" is in the first place and the article is a mix between descriptions of several particular military units thoughout the history and whole ethnic groups which made war their main trade and way of living.
      www.histours.ru

      Siege of Leningrad battlefield tour

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      • #4
        Agreed, very bad use if the "Warrior Culture" term...

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        • #5
          Could someone tell me what I could do to fix it, make it better, or if I should stick with the general topic or specialize in something specific. If so, what?
          "The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his."~ George Patton

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          • #6
            Originally posted by Qymaen View Post
            Could someone tell me what I could do to fix it, make it better, or if I should stick with the general topic or specialize in something specific. If so, what?
            I suggest an overhaul. First explain the meaning of the term, then proceed to individual examples of it and end with a general conclusion on their similarities/differences, impact on world's history, etc.
            www.histours.ru

            Siege of Leningrad battlefield tour

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            • #7
              Originally posted by ShAA View Post
              I suggest an overhaul. First explain the meaning of the term, then proceed to individual examples of it and end with a general conclusion on their similarities/differences, impact on world's history, etc.
              I agree. For example take the info about the knight, its based on stereotypes. The reality is that Knights were simply a caste and there were a variety of different kinds of knights-there were knights who were infantry, etc.Plus Knights varied from culture to culture in Europe. A French knight is not the same as an English knight.

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              • #8
                I did not see the Samurai, who in my view are the epitome of a "warrior culture." They were a minority in a sense, but their honor was so high and their skills so respected that on the battlefield, they would pick one-on-one battles with enemy samurai before the rest of the conscripts would join in. Sometimes the felling of a great samurai leader precluded a large battle from happening and thus conserved many resources and good men from being wasted.
                The Europa Barbarorum II team [M2TW] needs YOUR HELP NOW HERE!

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                • #9
                  I'd suggest you change the title completely: Warriors are not the same as soldiers. This key point is not explored in your piece at all, if anything your lack of reference to it sugggest ignorance of it.

                  Warrior
                  Individual fighter or war party leader who fights for self, personal honour or small group. Usually a product of a "clan" or "tribal" society.

                  Soldier
                  Citizen or professional who serves for pay in an organized army run by a monarchy or government. Usually a product of a nation state.

                  Even your final conclusion is not borne out by facts. For pre-modern warrior socieites, war may not be hell at all - more like a form of sport. This is seen in primitive societies such as Papua New Guinea to this day. For the soldier - ie a participant in a highly organized form of warfare - war may well be hell.
                  A massive attack...a brigade against an army...three nights of battle...an unforgettable tragedy.
                  Sixty years later, the full story is told at last:
                  http://tothelastround.wordpress.com/

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                  • #10
                    Hey,Qymaen!!I see you are fishing for info on hat paper of your here as well.
                    Alcibiades
                    Nothing is impossible to him who will try- Alexander the Great

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                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Alcibiades View Post
                      Hey,Qymaen!!I see you are fishing for info on hat paper of your here as well.
                      Alcibiades
                      Yup.
                      "The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his."~ George Patton

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                      • #12
                        The theme is to general and therefore too vague, as is. You state you only use one source, that's like preparing a seven course meal only using salt. I would suggest at least 200 printed sources, interviews with ten or more instructors in the military arts and retired military men. Then and only then a detailed study of each of the "Cultures" you wish to discuss. AND THEN come up with something new not just a repeat of someone elses ideas.
                        I wish you well as we are always in need of new explainations as to war and warriors...that may be the true status of the human race...peace may be the abnormality.

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