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    As long as we can consider chess as a wargame, I would like to share this interesting article with you. After I read that article, I just wanted to grab my set and go find somebody to play.
    It is written by Turkish Army Captain Cihangir Aksit and it was published in Turkish Army Magazine.
    I hope you enjoy it.

    THE MOST BEAUTIFUL WAR GAME: CHESS
    Cpt. Cihangir Akşit

    He who does not believe the subject “ Chess ” or who evaluates this wonderful game as a “hindrenced version of usual draughts game”, expectedly will not deal with this article. But when they’ll begin approaching objectively to the subject, disbelieving will flow up and also it’s only a sudden being a fan or a lover of this game.

    Beside a little bit pretention , this wonderful game which is played on 64 squares, is nothing except a horrific pitched battle.

    Chess includes everything as like terror, motion, losses, trial, planning, firmness, self equity, pressure, assault, defence, tricks, tanks, infantrymen, helicopters, engineering officers and etc…

    In this respect, they who will try the battle, should pass over this examination. Truly, there is a great relation between the game “Chess” and the military job. Because of this, we should belong this game more firmly than civilians. The logic of this game includes all of the military procedures and doctrines. If we desire after this much words; if we go and get a set and belong a book to learn the rules, if we memorize all the variations, combinations and opennings by making exercises for weeks and at last if we become ready to play , then we are in the “I know nothing!” condition. Just think of this: We are at an under zero point, so we climb a very upright ascent and the arrival point is then “zero”.

    This game requires a big patience. Let’s continue : If we play everyday, and if we force our minds to work at the highest capacity, if we loose or win; still it’d be very difficult to say “I play chess very well!”. Especially being a master or a great master is in the mouth of the lion. The knowledge of existinng 90 nchessmasters in last 10 years, proves the difficulty level of this game.In this case, instead of following a pretentious way to be a “great chessmaster”, we should aim to be a good player or a good fan. Because this can be possible.

    Especially, if this game joins as an auxilary lesson in the military high schools and also if students like this game at those ages, at least good chess players and consequently good strategists and tacticals can be trained. Chess is the best and the most economic assistant in training.

    We do not like to be beat at head games usually. Even when we loose a game, we can not digest. Because inside us , success resists either to impolite force or to easy cunnings. There is no impolite force in playing chess. Cunnings can be easily flustered when noticed by your opponent.

    The most important property of chess is its teaching how to war with our all material and spiritual force in order to win. Everything begin to win. Our determination and desire to war is complete. We always struggle to realize this.

    We learn to learn while loosing by playing chess if only our opponent is better than us. That is not the end when you loose. If we loose , we should not leave everything by deploring , to the conterary we should research which faults are made and also preparing ourselves in order not to make them again like in the battles. As a summary, a loosed chess game gives the news of a new victory , not the end of everything and injects a fighter and a manly manner.

    Besides, one who likes chess from deep inside , always wants to play with better players than himself. His aim is to learn more. If we know that our opponent is better then the wonder of - How to win? - is a brave and cool thought in learning.

    Besides chess brings these advantages to a soldier :

    Injects a continuous trial mentality. Conditions are always being changed. Making a short condition trial is the most important habit of a commander.

    Acqoires the habit of planning the next operations in a continious way. Either how many moves we see ahead nor our horizon gains that much. At the beginning if we see 2-3 moves ahead , this can be more than 5 in the future. The most important ability of a commander must be seeing the future.

    Chess gives the opportunity to apply most of the battle principals and tactical and strategic rules, on the 64 squares. Makes you to exercise and obtain habits on these subjects.

    Teachs how to wait and how to be patient to a commander. To wait until the right time and after that to attack to the enemy is a necessary ability for a commander.

    Teachs to behave cool and temperate. There have been commanders who victimized lots of military forces and soldiers. Always this like commanders who do not esteem their soldiers , were defeated in the past. Also in playing chess, saying - Never mind for only a pawn - is like the same mentality. For a victory all of the pieces can be sacrificed but sometimes all of the pieces can be mobilized for only a pawn. Because the most unvaluable piece, pawn, would be queen at a time. As well it s a known fact that sometimes games ends with a pawn’s attack.

    Chess teachs human how to be creative. Human becomes happy as many combinations and games are made , and wants to create more.

    Chess is the greatest enemy of the instability. Especially , in the timed games you had to give the right decision by making a trial in a certain time. Acquires to make quick trials and coming to the right decisions in a certain time habit.

    Births a cooperation spirit. Shows that it would be hard to win with only the king or the commander instead going to success with all of the other pieces.

    Uses can be reproduced certainly.

    Until now we mention non-technical explanations. From now on lets study on the history of chess in more details :

    In the encyclopedic determination chess is a game that is played on a wood divided in 64 squares, with a total amount of 32 pieces by 2 people each take 16.

    But do not be decieved with this simple determination. According to the arabic supplies , chess is a game that exposed by a brahman father who gives lessons to an Indian prince in order to tell that even kings can not do anything by himselves. The pince likes the father’ s game and wants him to wish anything that he wants. And he wants 1 wheat for the 1st square of the chess board and 2 for the 2nd, 3 for the 3rd... Briefly he wants wheat for all 64 squares of the board with the same way. The young prince accepts the father’ s wish regarding and orders in order to make the wish real. At the beginnig it appears as a simple request but it was unable to settle and also all the scholars come together but they can not be able to pick that much of wheat up. Because when they calculate the wheat that the father wanted , the number 18.446.744.073.709.551.615 occured. At that times even in all the India it was not possible to handle that much of wheat together. Even today in order to handle that much of wheat, we should plant wheat on a ground that is 76 times greater than all the continents on earth and then pick up. Chess which was entered in europe in 9. century is supposed to be the invention of a that wise person. Today’s chess comes out with few wise peoples’ changing some rules up to 15th century. It s known as being played until 500 years with the same rules.

    Lets do a comparison between the pieces and the units used in battles after we ve seen the history.

    PAWNS : They re exactly the same as the foot soldiers. They ve limited movements. They ve the duty of confidence of the backwards units from the beginning of the game to the end. They obtain manoever fields for the backward units. Especially when used better in the beginning , they can prove superiority on the four squares at the middle( Critical Area). So advantage can be easily taken to the hand. They can also do the duty of obstruction like military engineers by going to the fore of the heavy pieces like castle rook and the queen. Cushing superiority depends on the usage of the pawns. When they are onthe same columns , they are respected in a sensitive conditions because they can not protect each other.

    KNIGHTS : They can attack to the behind regions or pieces by passing over theother pieces. They can represent exactly the artilerryman firing without vision or sometimes the aviator soldiers / flying troops. They obtain astonishing and raid. They take lots of troops under fire by doing prongs. Knights are light pieces. Two knights can protect themselves. Only when they are a lone with the king it s then too hard to do a checkmate. Opponent is reqoired to make a fault.

    BISHOPS : They generally represent the mobile and motorized infantry units. They are assistant to take the superiority or the exact result handle. Sometimes they include the artilarry that fires in high range by vision. Because of this movement they obtain a continuous and a well timed fire. Sometimes they lay wonderful ambushes by bringing the opponent to difficult positions. They are called as light pieces. They have a long fire and movement range from the center or one corner to the other corner. One king and one bishop can not checkmate. ( FIANCHETTO )

    CASTLE ROOKS : They have the same value with the tank units which have speed and stroke influence and also which obtain the crushing hit by the high movement capabilities at the perfect time and place. Obtains elasticity. Their effects can be stronger when reinforced sufficiently ( with bishops and knights ) by being constituted as mission forces. They can be easily collected after dispearcing to wide regions. Besides, they can give a fire support with vision in long ranges at the columns that they threats. Two castle rooks on the same columns constitute a great unit.They are known as heavy chessmen. One castle rook and a king can checkmate, but in this like conditions , beginners can drag the game to a draw.

    QUEEN : It represents the strategic reserves that would take us to the exact result such as nuclear weapons, rocket and missile launcher units and the tactical air forces. It s a great pressure tool when used convenient. It s the most important chessman in the other 16 which can obtain the longest fire and manoeuvre to every direction. It obtains the exact checkmate result with a king.

    KING : It’ s determination and desire. It’s commander, flag and also a spiritual value like moral. It’s the battle service support, dicipline, education, communication and coordination… Briefly, everything ends if it goes away. The most important property of the king is its’ fighting till the end so that it can effect directly to the battle affairs.It can not handle the exact result by itself. But it obtains superiority and wins battles with its elements.




    RELATIONS OF CHESS – WAR PRINCIPLES

    Always commanders who apply the war principles, would have had been successful than commanders who do not apply. But the application degrees of those principles change due to the situations. The condition is as same as in chess. According to this :

    Principle of Target : It is applied as same as in chess. The last military target in our field manuals is to destroy enemy armed forces and also their resolution. Helping in order to hande the last target is the target of every military operations. All the chessmen oriantate to checkmate the king or to handle the superiority in order to make the opponent leave the game.

    In chess, the aim of thhe player is to force the opponent to accept his requests. ( Here “ FORCE” means the power of the chessmen and the brain ) As a technical term “ Combinations” can force the opponent accept our requests.

    Assault Principles : Applying this principle obtains us handling the superiority , controlling the direction of the course of events in the game. Also obtains forcing the opponent to accept our requests and blocking up the unexpected developments.

    Either sometimes we defence in the game, absolutely we think of the assault. Defence is done in order to obtain suitable conditions and to gain time for the next assault. Assault also supplies security in chess.

    Center of Weight Principle : One of the most known war principles is collecting the superior battle force in the time and at the situation of the exact result. Also it’ s better to collect more units in to the place that we would have the exact result. ( For Eg.=> Before an attack to one of the pawns of the opponent, we should handle the superiority on this pawn with the other chessmen. At least the pawn should be threatened by more chessmen than the opponent. )

    Possession of Power Principle : We must provide less units at the secondary regions for collecting more power on the ragion that we ‘ ll handle the exact result on the chessboard ( battle area ). For Eg. => We can take the knight and the bishop on the rook side (1) from the security of the king in order to make them participate in the assault.

    Principle Of Manoeuvre :Requires abstaining from the cliched games by new combinations and variations instead of staying stationary with the existing chessmen. Doing non-standart games is possible only after a certain level. In positional ( congested ) games in order to obtain the principle of manoeuvre can be handled by the result of a combination of little superiorities. Queens, castle rooks, bishops and knights are the chessmen that increase the ability of manoeuvre.

    Command / Control Union : It is accepted as this principle is being applied by the king or the player. It’s accepted as equal for both sides from the beginning of the game till the end. Untrained people can not play when they ‘ ve been confused. They can be defeated in spite of help. ( Out of rules )

    Principle Of Security : This is supplied by the pawns from the beginning arrangements. Pawns represent the forward position line, coverage force line and ……….
    Long and short rooks made for the security of the king are the necessary security movements. Principle of security does not require allowing risks and also taking risks as in the field manuals. As wining battles by slyly risks, games can be won too. The side who handles superiority , obtains security of himself at the same time. Because at the same time he ‘d not let the opponent’s interferences too.

    Assault Principle : Means to stroke the opponent from the unexpected region and at the unexpected time. At this time collapsion of the heavy and the light chessmen in a deceiver style is very important. Assault can be done with the long ranged chessmen more easily.

    Tactical Cover Trick : Either it’s controversial as a war principle, it comes through as “ TRAP ” in chess. As a technical term, trap means setting a combination or a checkmate net if possible after orientating the opponent to do a powerful movement in sight by a move that seems to be inconvenient for one of the both sides. “Fall in to trap” phrase is used for the side who does the inclination of his opponent.

    As you see, war principles are as same as the principles in chess. Truly , application of the war principles occur in chess too.

    Pat or draw game is one of the other subjects. Draw means that noone beat eachother. This situation can come through in normal wars. This term is like as the armistice treaties declared by both sides after they can not handle superiority on eachother. More than one games can go to draw in a party. But generally parties do not end by draw at last.

    Chess parties can include either 1 game or 24 games like played between FISCHER and SPASSKY in 1972. We can liken these as war and battle. In a war, few battles can be lost. But as a result war must be won. He who wins the most battle, generally he wins the war.



    CHESS AND STRATEGY :

    Strategy in chess is the main plan of a game. The little parts of the strategy in application is called as “tactic”.

    Players can choose two ways of movement from the beginning.

    1.Strategical attack
    2.Strategical defence

    In spite of this, some players may fell in to instability or they may want to
    determine a different strategy according to the opponent’s games. Anyway he had to choose one of two factors above.If he is late and instable choosing one, then he ll loose the game. Chess does not forgive any instability. Especially in the timed games, being late makes you loose.

    But sometimes a player may want not to make any moves acoording to a situation that he has. This is called ZUGZWANG as a technical term. But the rules of the game are merciless like the rules of battle. So in this respect, player must do a movvement which will make his condition quashed.
    A game exists from phases same like war and battle. These are :

    1.Opening phase which includes obtaining contact and accumilation,
    2.Middle game phase including variations and combinations after the obtainment of contact,
    3.Last game phase that the king leaves hiding and actively joins the game after most of the chessmen are destroyed.




    STRATEGICAL ATTACK :

    We know that the exact result can be handled by only attack. This is same for chess too. The main aim is to make the opponent leave the game by breaking his determination and desire or beat all his armed forces by checkmate. We make the opponent side accept our requests by force ( Brain power-chessmen ).

    Using advantage is the most important matter while attacking. Attacking in chess makes you to handle the superiority. Besides this advantage is won by benefiting from the opponent’s weak sides with the recless and brave usage of pawns and both light and heavy chessmen. Besides this advantages help to obtain a superiority with a combination of little attacks. When you handle the advantage, you should show the maximum effort in order not to leave it.


    According to this, as the illustrations in an attack :

    1. Siege :Generally one sided siege is prefered. But, after the forward phases, if possible , double sided sieges can be done by using the queen and the castle rooks. As in our field manuals, success depends on the way of siege as like an assault. The chessmen that will make the assault are the active chessmen like the queen and castle rooks with the support of the knights and the bishops. Pawns and the light pieces execute secondary attacks. Success of the siege depends on the ability of the pawns’ secondary attack’s determination of the enemy in the front.

    When it’s decided to surround, you should allow to tack the opponent’s powerful parts. After going behind his heavy chessmen, strokes are done to its sides and behind regions. Thus, the king would be destroyed in its own position.

    The king can also be destroyed with the light and heavy chessmen at that region by forcing it to withdraw a place that we want by attacking from the front.(Rotation)

    Besides, you can capture the critical behind regions of the king by executing an airunit operation and also you can attack to the opponent pieces behind. So, a vertical siege would have been made. Searching for a convenient region for siege is very necessary for this manouvre. Can be done after a split.

    2. Split :This is a manouvre style prefered when the opponent’s arrangement of the chessmen is not suitable for a siege on the field. (chessboard) When weak points exist in especially the form of the opponent’s chessmen and in the defence after the opening and if you have enough light and heavy chessmen can be used at that region then a split can be done. The split begins with the pawns as usual. The most important duty of the pawns in a split is to open a breach in his defence by destroying the opponent’s pawns or his destroying a chessman that we give ( Gambit ). From this hole in order to benefit from the success, the mission forces of heavy chessmen with the support of light pieces are oriented to deep inside the opponent where have the vital importance. So, the continousity of the defence of the opponent would have been removed. After the benefit from success forces passed through the hole, they attack to the opponent’s reserves ( queen - castle rooks - knights - bishops ) or to the king violently. A split can usually be done from a chessboard’s center region or a region beside its center. Of course at the forwarding phases the opponent can establish a new defence at a corner by a rook. Then you should search for new weaknesses of this new defence.

    Either the forces which are being passed from the split hole how greater widen the hole nor the operation of the heavy chessmen would be more easy. Sometimes the breach can be repaired and closed by the opponent. Thus the heavy chessmen can stay behind the opponent’s defence line. Therefore the most right way is to will the minimum damage and exchange ( If escaping is impossible ) before the condition goes worse. So, before doing this kind of manouvres, you should analyse the future movements of the opponent and also very good calculations and plans should be done.

    3. Forehead Attack : This manouvre can be applied at the middle phases of the game because at the beginning of the game the forces are always equal so you do not start the game with a crushing superiority. Stabilization forces can arrange forehead attacks at the secondary attacks. Application is very hard in chess like it ‘s in the battle.It ‘s prefered too few.



    STRATEGICAL DEFENCE :

    These are the defence precautions which are arranged in order to protect the king and the vital areas ( areas which contain the heavy chessmen) , at the same time by collecting all the necessary vehicles and tools to start an attack, like in our field manuals. Nimzo-Hint defence, Sicilly defence, Pillsburry defence, niemzovich defence and the Bird Openings are some good examples for the strategical defence. You should wait for the oppponent’s faults or the weaknesses of the opponent’s misuses whilw defencing.

    CHESS AND PLANNING :

    At the beginning, learning the opponent’s game style, his openings and tacticals is a very important subject. ( For Eg. => Everytime opens by Ruy LOPEZ, he is inactive and not stubburn.Attacks make him low-spirited, he afraids of the knights and also exchangement and etc... ) After this kind of knowledge, suitable openings against his movements are planned or he is forced to show the reactions that we want.

    But the opponent would not use the same tactics and technics everytime. You should be ready everytime in order not to be assaulted. Especially that might be the first match with our opponent. We might not have any knowledge about him. This situations must be investigated while making mentaly plans at the forward phases of the game or while setting a game. A good player always thinks of the next attack and plans the next few movements.

    EXECUTION :

    From the beginning of the game we try to learn the opponent’s tactics and in order not to give the advantage to the opponent like at the battle. But those shouldn’t be ignorant ( Ad Libitum ) movements. ( For Eg.=> We took the queen forward. And we took it back after his movement. ) In this kind of conditions the opponent wins a move.Also this kind of movements can take the advantage to the opponent. We can want to expose the opponent’s games or take the advantage for setting a superiority on him by giving a victim by attacking with the pawns on the opponent’s forward elements. This event which is called as ‘Algebrical Discovery’ in the battle , called as ‘ Gambit’ in chess. It s usual to give a pawn to take the advantage while attacking ( Gambit ).

    In the same way, we can attack to quash the opponent’s attacking preperations with the pawns, bishops,knights and also with the castle rooks. It s very important to constitute the mission forces for use.

    Constituting the mission forces, as you see , is known since 9th century when chess has been occured. A castke rook at the support of a bishop and the bishop supported by pawns, constitutes a more powerful force.

    Whatever we apply in chess, one of the most necessary protections is the accross support like in the battle. We should try to set a protecting eachother system as possible.This helps force and security’s increasing. ( For Eg.=> Protection of the castle rooks’ eachother, a pawn’s supporting a bishop ,so the bishop supports the pawn.

    Pawns represent either the security forces nor the 1st line units’ regions at defence. The defence would be applied , must have been active. Pawns move ahead by attacking and they try to have a great fire area as possible by opening. Thus a forwarding defence would have been supplied. But there must be a continuous accrosing support between the pawns and the behind chessmen. Otherwise losses occur in pieces. The defence doctrine including the use of the units at the AMS of the security forces and the reserves is as same as in chess too. After the necessary preperations are made, attack begins.

    In chess, the game takes this like progress :
    Sides make opennings by moving forward to obtain a superiority. ( On the 4 squares of the geometrical center ). Both sides try to quash the other sider’s pawns’ forms. The side that takes the advantage at the center means that he would have the superiority too. Sometimes you can even sacrifice a pawn in order to obtain this superiority.( Gambit ) At last one side compels the other side to defence. He begins a cruel attack to destroy the king in order not to let the other doing a rook ( security platform ). As the other side knows this, he wants to smuggle his king to more securit areas ( corners ) by doing a rook. The other side would try everything like prongs and impasses in order not to let the other doing the rook.



    Precaution in Chess :

    It occurs from the castle rooks or the queens supported by the knights and the bishops which are used to cover the unexpected conditions, gaining the success and to support the attacks. They are used to make the opposite attacks to destroy the bishops,castle rooks and the queens and to get rid of the enterings on the AMH, in defence. Besides precaution in defence supplies security too.

    Always white begins the game so, white has the advantage of a 1 forward move. Unexpectedly , he can loose this advantage by making faults in the future. A movement that makes the player loose the advantage is called as ‘ Tempo Smuggling’. Either this tempo can increase suddenly , it can increase with following little advantages. At the masters’ games this tempo increases slowly.

    CHESS - SHORT CONDITION TRIAL (VDAM) :

    Chess requires a continuous trial as I told at the beginning. A condition trial is made for all the conditions accross and the right move is decided.

    1. Duty :Means to destroy the opponent’s fighting desire and determination and checkmating the king.Duties can occur in order to perform the mission in the conditions. ( Handling the superiority, etc... )

    2. Enemy :Generally he has these abilities and opportunities below :

    a.) He can make a suitable openning so he can take the advantage on the cnter squares.
    b.) He can support this advantage by his bishops, knights, castle rooks and the queens. He can also prevent us to make a rook.
    c.) According to this he can increase the tempo at the forehead and handle the superiority by little attacks.

    After this matters are supplied , the opponent can do below according to the matures :

    a.) He can do splits and sieges at our defence forehead by establishing a weight center with some heavy and light chessmen that are taken from some foreheads.
    b.) He can develop his success with his heavy chessmen after these battles.
    c.) He can destroy out strategical reserves ( queens, castle rooks, etc... ) so he can make us unmoveable.
    d.) He can set the mate net up and checkmate.

    3. Field :Either a chessboard consists of 64 squares, it is a huge battle area which includes the same GÖKEY rules in our field manuals.

    a.) Observation and fire fields : The activity of this fields change according to the type of the chessmen and to some regions of the chessboard. ( For Eg.=> When enemy is found, a pawn’s fire field is one square left forward and one square right forward.Briefly it can have an observation field surrounding on each one square. However a queen can have a more long ranged fire and observation field by moving diagonal and on the columns when no chessmwen front. ) Besides there are some observation and fire fields of some squares on the chessboard. ( For Eg.=> A queen can have observation and fire fields in 8 different ways by moving diagonal towards 4 ways and along the rows and the columns like the plus shape. But when the same queen locates on a square at one of the corners, it can have only a 3 wayes fire and observation field by moving 1 diagonal and 1 column and 1 row. ) The edges of the chessboard obtain security because of no threat, but it limits fire and manouvre capability.

    b.) Hiding and Coverage : All the chessmen supply coverage for the king and eachother. ( For Eg.=> Pawns obtain a coverage against the opponent’s all weapons that fire by vision. But weapons like the knights which fire without vision can pass over this coverage and destroy h,their targets. A concrete conceal can not be applied in chess because the player sees everything and the chessmen do not have eyes to see.

    c.) Critical Field :They are the 4 squares at the center at the beginning of the game. The side that captures these fields, handles the superiority too. Next, it changes according to the type of the battle and to the duty like in a war. ( For Eg.=> The square that contains enemy on and surround of it supposed to be critical. And also the areas containing opponent chessmen are critical fields too. )

    d.) Barriers :Sometimes we can establish barriers against the attacking opponent by moving pawns.Besides when necessary we can built barriers with the light chessmen which can be taken in front of the king or the heavy chessmen. When we think the outside of the cheesboard as barriers that can not be passed over , one of the best way to destroy the enemy is to compress the enemy at the edges.

    e.) Approaching directions: It can be along the clumns or diagonal according to the situation of the game. The columns at the edges ( approaching directions ) obtain side security.

    4. Present Forces :Besides changing according to the manouvres ; at the beginning , there exists 16 units moving alone.The abilities of these pieces are the same at the same kinds and different at the different kinds. ( For Eg.=> Two pawn has the same properties but there are difference between a pawn and a bishop.)



    RESULT :

    A good chess player is a good commander like thesis seems from the document up to now. This is not like that surely. If it ‘s like that , Fischer ( USA ), Spassky (RUSSIA), Petrossian and Ruy LOPEZ would have been commanders who have had been won field wars.

    Chess should be thought as one of the assistants to a whole education system. It’s complementary but also neccessary.

    It’s neccessary for a soldier like reading. Our aim is not to be a master or big master as mentioned at the beginning.Our aim is to learn chess which is the easiest and the most economic way of applying war principles and tactical and strategic rules and methods.

    War can be learned the best with application. Chess is at least one of the best practicals for habiting the field manuals’ insides however we re in piece today.

    Besides army, chess exists in the applications in civil. There is no difference between a student’s who is preparing himself to the univercity exams, making a weight center and establishing a weight center in order to a forward attack from that region by collecting castle rooks and bishops to that region.

    Briefly chess should enter in to the military schools, barracks and also in to the civilian schools completely. Competitions should be encouraged and chess corners should be started in the magazines.

    Our duty in here is to learn. Teach how to play chess to all our frinds, children and brothers. Claim on chess.
    Best Regards
    Fatih
    "A nation which makes the final sacrifice for life and freedom does not get beaten." - Mustafa Kemal ATATURK

  • #2
    We had a recent conversation on chess here actually.
    “To discriminate against a thoroughly upright citizen because he belongs to some particular church, or because, like Abraham Lincoln, he has not avowed his allegiance to any church, is an outrage against that liberty of conscience which is one of the foundations of American life.”

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